MACROTYLOMA UNIFLORUM PDF

From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Dolichos biflorus auct. Dolichos uniflorus Lam. Macrotyloma uniflorum var. Included varieties :. Pages in category " Macrotyloma uniflorum " This category contains only the following page.

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It is considered as a rich source of protein, vitamins, and minerals. It is characteristically known for its biotic and abiotic resistance, e. There are umpteen references available in the traditional medicinal system reverberating its medicinal significance. Its various bioactivities like anti-diabetic, analgesics, anticalcifying, anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-obesity, antihelmintic, antioxidant, larvicidal and anorectic properties have already been reported.

Despite being both sturdy and nutritive food crop, its consumption is very low. The present review attempts to compile medicinal uses of this crop to attract the people for its consumption. Its regular consumption not only adds to health benefits but also provides useful nutrition.

After cereals, legumes are considered as the second most important class of crop plants which have been a vital component of a balanced diet for humans 2, 3.

It is also used as cattle feed both fresh and dried for dairy as well as poultry animals. Horse gram gains special importance in semi-arid regions as its requirement for water is very low. It is commonly known as kulath, kulith, ulavalu, gahot, hurali, kollurmuthira, etc. Since, it is also a rich source of protein, vitamins, and minerals; therefore it can contribute to fight against protein malnutrition in the developing world.

In the developing countries like India, only a few conventional legumes dominate the pulse production. Therefore, to effectively eradicate the protein malnutrition, the underutilized legumes like horse gram have a great potential in the nutritional security of rural, tribal and underprivileged people 6. Since, horse gram has good nutritive potential, and it is fairly resistant to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Also, it has a higher production potential under salt stress conditions 8.

In India, horse gram is known as a legume with ethnomedicinal values. It forms major portion of the diet of the rural people during drought and dry seasons 9. Further, it is considered as an excellent source of dietary fiber, molybdenum, iron, calcium, other micronutrients and other bioactive phytochemicals 10, 11, 12, Some of its pharmaceutically important properties include anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-microbial, anti-obesity, anti-helminthic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-cholelithiasis, anti-histaminic, anti-peptic ulcer, anti-oxidant, anti-obesity, anti-urolithiasis, diuretic, hemolytic, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive properties.

Therefore, the present review is an attempt to compile the best available information in the scientific literature about the medicinal significance of horse gram. The present review outlines and underlines its major medicinal values.

Anti-diabetic Activity: Diabetes mellitus is associated with high glucose levels in blood and is a very common problem throughout the world. Horse gram possesses slowly digesting starch which is considered to have low postprandial glucose response upon its consumption by people suffering from diabetes Therefore anti-diabetic and anti-lipidemic effects of horse gram were suggested, and it was recommended to use horse gram as a daily diet adjuvant against diabetes mellitus and associated problems The M.

It also reduced the serum glucose level in treated diabetic mice. The minimum pathological changes were exposed in the treated diabetic mice as compared to the diabetic control in histological findings Based on the recommendation made, adding raw horse gram not their sprouts to the daily diet of diabetic individuals may be useful 21, Anti-hypercholesterolemic and Anti-obesity Activities: A herbal formulation, LOWAT containing the alcoholic extract of horse gram seeds was found effective in weight management and was able to inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesisits clinical trial on human subjects Besides the seeds, leaf extract of horse gram has also been reported to possess anti-obesity properties.

Horse gram leaf extracts were found to have hypolipidemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic effects. The leaf extracts of horse gram were found to have strong activities against high-fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and obesity in rats.

Upon the consumption of horse gram leaf extracts for 5 weeks, decrease in total cholesterol TC , triglycerides, LDL low-density lipoprotein , VLDL very low-density lipoprotein and an increase in HDL high-density lipoprotein was observed.

The ethanol extract of horse gram led to significantly higher fecal excretion of cholesterol amount than the water extract, and water extract led to a significant lowering of body weight than ethanol extract Another study also reported the similar effect of leaf extract of horse gram leading to the enhancement of HDL with a simultaneous decrease in TC, triglycerides very low density and LDL in male albino rats on hypercaloric diet administration of cholesterol for 40 days In a study on overweight human volunteers, it was found that the hot extract of horse gram possesses anti-obesity activity.

However, its anti-obesity effect was found to act more quickly in males than females, and its magnitude of anti-obese activity was also found more pronounced in males Antiurolithiatic and Anticalcifying Activities: In Indian folk medicine system, horse gram soup is well known for its property of reducing the risk of kidney stones. It was found that two or more inhibitors of crystallization of calcium phosphate one of the major constituent of kidney stones are present in the seed extracts of horse gram that are water soluble, heat stable and non-protein in nature.

However, the decrease in anticalcifying activity has also been reported along with the maturation of seeds or upon their post-harvest storage Therefore, soup of freshly harvested horse gram may be useful in the management of kidney stones.

Besides this report of the presence of not-protein inhibitors of calcium phosphate crystallization, a dimeric antilithiatic protein 98 kDa was also purified from the seeds of horse gram that was capable of inhibiting calcium oxalate crystallization and was having abundant acidic amino acids The protein was shown to have sequence similarity with a calcium-binding protein, calnexin of Pisum sativum.

The extracts of horse gram were reported to possess anti-urolithiasis activity that was almost equivalent to cystone like marketed formulation for kidney stones It was also found that the horse gram extract is highly effective in the dissolution of calcium oxalate crystals and decrease their particle size considerably When a different type of horse gram seed extracts aqueous, chloroform and benzene were checked for their in-vitro anti-urolithiasis activity, the aqueous extract was found to have the highest dissolution of kidney stones as compared to the others However, Researchers reported that alcohol extract of horse gram seeds was more effective than aqueous extracts while checking their anti-urolithiasis activity in male albino Wister rats The renal excretion of calcium and phosphate was increased in rats by ethylene glycol feeding.

Supplementation with both the aqueous and the alcohol extract significantly reduced the elevated urinary oxalate. Therefore, the increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats was lowered considerably by both the extracts, however more by the alcoholic extract than aqueous extract 34, The in-vitro effect of horse gram seeds on crystallization of calcium phosphate which is the major constituent of the kidney stone had been studied.

The seed extract of horse gram contains the inhibitors of crystallization which is water soluble, heat stable, polar, non-tannin and non-protein in nature. The anticalcifying activity was found to be lost completely with activated charcoal which was not recovered or eluted by any solvent tried The calcium-binding proteins CBPs in seeds of horse gram was studied and reported that CBPs plays a significant function in the prevention of kidney stone production.

The recognized CBPs in this work may be applied as a curative agent in kidney stones and may lead to the formation of antilithiatic formulation The methanolic seeds extract of horse gram exhibited remarkable diuretic activity in mice, i. Analgesics Effect: The methanolic seeds extract of horse gram showed the fewer analgesics activity in mice, i. The tail immersion and hotplate methods are mainly used to determine the analgesic effect. The enhancement of reaction duration in tail immersion and hotplate tests by M.

The methanolic extract of horse gram possessed both central as well as peripheral antinociceptive activity The analgesic activity was also studied by using acetic acid-mediated writhing, hotplate and tail flick tests of fixed oil of horse gram in mice. All findings were significant, although, delayed onset of action was noted in tail flick and paw edema methods Furthermore, they inferred that fixed oil of horse gram possesses analgesic activity which may be associated with peripheral mode of action.

Furthermore, the aqueous extract successfully neutralized the indirect hemolytic activity and showed similar strength in counteracting the PLA2 induced mouse paw edema in-vivo Carrageenan is the chemical which induces the paw edema by inflammation in the albino rats. Researchers also studied the anti-inflammatory activity of fixed oil of horse gram in rats The effect of horse gram on inflammatory mediators was studied The findings of these results suggested that horse gram supplementation for 21 and 60 days indicated no significant variations inflammatory mediators, i.

Moreover, these findings suggested the anti-inflammatory potential of horse gram in rats. Anti-allergic or Anti-anaphylactic Activity: The ethanolic extract by cold maceration process was prepared, and then it was operated on mice and rats for anti-allergic activity using milk-induced leukocytosis, eosinophilia and passive paw anaphylaxis Rats pretreated with ethanolic extract showed substantial protection against degranulation.

Anticholelithiatic Activity: The methanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared from seeds of horse gram and were examined for their bile antilithogenic potential on mice The methanolic and aqueous extracts were used for the presence of phenolics, tannins, and flavonoids.

In this study, the gall bladder size was increased with the help of LG Lithogenic diet and then checked against both the extracts at different concentrations. Both extracts effectively reduced the formation of CGS Cholesterol gallstones. The aqueous extract group showed the lowest incidence of CGS Antimicrobial Activity: Horse gram has been used in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections The different crude extracts of horse gram, i.

Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, Fusarium equiseti, Macrophomina phaseolina, Colletotrichum corchori, Diplodiatheo bromae, Curvularia lunata and Alternaria alternaria.

The ethyl acetate showed good activities and dichloromethane showed the moderate antibacterial activities. However, the 1-butanol and aqueous extracts did not show any significant antimicrobial activities The seed extracts from M.

Antihelmintic Activity: The seeds of M. The ethanolic extract of horse gram seed was used to check the anthelmintic activity against adult Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma resemblances with the intestinal roundworm parasites in anatomy. The anthelmintic activity of the seeds of horse gram was found having good effect by comparing with standard piperazine citrate Similarly, the M.

Whereas the time required for paralyzing and killing the worms with standard Albendazole was These extracts can be used in the cure of helminths infestations Therefore, its use as food to eradicate worms from infants has been suggested However such uses of horse gram are speculated merely on the bases of the resemblance of P.

Antioxidant Activity: The in-vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic seed extracts of M. The ethanolic extract of horse gram showed a good improvement in anti-oxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and increased glutathione concentration in rabbits Overall, all the extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity.

The different free radical scavenging activities of ethanolic leaf extract of horse gram showed good in-vitro analysis of antioxidant activity and was performed by various assays, i. These free radical scavenging potential of horse gram may be used in the treatment of various free radical-mediated disease like diabetes mellitus The antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical scavenging assay in seed coats of horse gram were checked and determined the antioxidant activity against B16F10 cell line.

They further reported that ethanolic and water extract of seed coat of horse gram possess antioxidant activity against skin cancer The researcher also in their studies analyzed the effect of horse gram for antioxidant activities.

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Scientific name

Dolichos uniflorus Lam. Macrotyloma uniflorum horse gram , kulthi bean , hurali , Madras gram [1] is one of the lesser known beans. It is used as horse feed and occasionally for human consumption and in Ayurvedic cuisine. Medical uses of these legumes have been discussed. Horse gram and moth bean are legumes of the tropics and subtropics , grown mostly under dry-land agriculture.

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Macrotyloma uniflorum

Siratro lobed. Young plants of cv. Leichhardt sown into sorghum stubble, Southern Qld Australia cv. Family: Fabaceae alt.

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Article Information

We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. Horsegram has been an important crop since the beginning of agriculture in many parts of South Asia. Mistakenly regarded as a minor crop, largely due to entrenched biases against this under-utilised crop, horsegram has received far less research than other pulses of higher status. Our survey of herbarium specimens provides an updated map of the probable range of the wild progenitor. A large database of modern reference material provides an updated baseline for distinguishing wild and domesticated seeds, while an extensive dataset of archaeological seed measurements provides evidence for regional trends towards larger seed size, indicating domestication. Separate trends towards domestication are identified for north-western India around BP, and for the Indian Peninsula around BP, suggesting at least two separate domestications.

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Click on images to enlarge. The two rows from left are cultivated types - the row on the right is a wild type. Subordinate taxa: Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. Dolichos benadirianus Chiov.

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