Marriage is a social institution as old as the human race itself. It may be defined as a relation between a man and a woman which is recognised by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties, both in the case of the parties entering the Union, and in case of the children born of it. Marriage has thus two main functions to perform: it is the means adopted by human society for regulating relations between the sexes; and it furnishes the mechanism by means of which the relations of a child to the community is determined. The rites and ceremonies of marriage have been different with different peoples and in different ages.
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Marriage is a social institution as old as the human race itself. It may be defined as a relation between a man and a woman which is recognised by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties, both in the case of the parties entering the Union, and in case of the children born of it. Marriage has thus two main functions to perform: it is the means adopted by human society for regulating relations between the sexes; and it furnishes the mechanism by means of which the relations of a child to the community is determined.
The rites and ceremonies of marriage have been different with different peoples and in different ages. It always implies the right of sexual intercourse as allowed and recognised by society and the duties of the parents in bringing up children.
Islam recognises this institution and accepts it as the basis of human society after purging it of all those evils which had penetrated it. Firstly, Islam does not regard it as a union only for the gratification of sexual lost, but a social contract with wide and varied responsibilities and duties.
The reason behind it is that, according to the Divine Faith, a woman is not a plaything in the hand of man. The wife is, therefore, not meant.
The Holy Qur'an has in so many verses pointed out the different purposes of marriage. It states: "And of His signs is that He has created wives for you from yourselves that you might find quiet of wind in them, and He put between you love and affection" xxx.
In this verse it has been said that the female is not inferior to the male in the sense that the former is created out of a superior stuff while the latter comes of a base origin.
Both man and woman are the progeny of Adam and thus both have the same soul. The purpose of marriage, according to the Holy Qur'an, is therefore, the union of the two souls which are one in essence. Their separate existence is an unnatural state of their being which changes Into the natural state when they are united by marriage and thus are brought close to each other physically, mentally and emotionally.
Both man and woman are the joint heirs of the grace of life, and unless there is a very close and intimate form of companionship in them, they cannot enjoy the true grace of life. It is not too much to say that the whole conception of the marriage relation in Islam is charged with spiritual and moral ideas, and must of necessity elevate the status of matrimonial alliance in the individual and social life.
In Islam the union of the sexes has been purified and the joy of the married relation secured by the absolute prohibition of every kind of extra-matzimonial connection. The Holy Qur'an stresses upon the people to marry as it is the most effective means whereby one can lead a virtuous life free from immorality and emotional inhibition. The Holy Qur'an says: "They your wives are as a garment to you, and you are as a garment to them" ii. The mutual relation of husband and wife is here described in words which could not be surpassed in beauty.
Herein is the correct description of the relationship between the two. The husband and the wife are for mutual support, mutual comfort and mutual protection, fitting into each other as garments fit into each other. Then the Holy Qur'an also makes it clear that this union is not a temporary relationship between two individuals of opposite sexes: It is a permanent and enduring relationship in the sense that both the parties should put in their earnest endeavours to lead their lives in perfect harmony and acquitting themselves creditably of the responsibilities saddled upon them by entering into this sacred contract.
The Holy Qur'an farther points out that sexual gratification in the married life is not meant only for the satisfaction of the physical lust, but it mustbe directed to some higher ends. Here the wives are likened to the cultivable land which are ploughed for sowing and reaping the produce in the form of offspring and not merely for carnal indulgence. The concluding part of the verse refers to still higher and sublimer ends which tell that even in the height of carnal pleasures the moral and spiritual responsibilities should not in any way be lost sight of ; rather one should be more conscious to them when one is enjoying physical pleasures as these are the moments when the fear of the Lord and the accountability in the Hereafter is likely to be blurred or effaced from one's mind.
He stopped there and began to talk with him. Uthman said to him: Abu 'Abd al-Rahman, should we not marry you to a young girl who may recall to you some of the past of your bygone days; thereupon he said: If you say so, Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him said: 0 young men, those among you who can support a wife should marry, for it restrains eyes from casting evil glances.
Ma'sud Allah he pleased with him in Mina, 'Uthman b. Mas'ud , and he isolated him from me , and when 'Abdullah b. Mas'ud saw that there was no need for this privacy , he said to me: 'Alqama, come on, and so I went there. Then 'Uthman said to him: Abu Abd al-Rahman, should we not marry you to a virgin girl that your past may be recalled to your mind? Abdullah b. Mas'ud Allah be pleased with him reported that Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him said to us: 0 young men, those among you who can support a wife should marry, for it restrains eyes from casting evil glances and preserves one from immorality; but he who cannot afford It should observe fast for it is a means of controlling the sexual desire.
Abu al-Rahman b. Yazid said:I and my uncle 'Alqama and al-Aswad went to 'Abdullah b. Mas'ud Allah be pleased with him. He the narrator further said: I was at that time young, and he narrated a hadith which it seemed he narrated for me that Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him said like one transmitted by Mu'awiya, and further added: I lost no time in marrying.
Yazid reported on the authority of Abdullah: We went to him, and I was the youngest of all of us , but he did not mention: "I lost no time in marrying.
Anas Allah be pleased with him reported that some of the Companions of Allah's Apostle may peace be upon him asked his the Prophet's wives about the acts that he performed in private. Someone among them among his Companions said: I will not marry women; someone among them said: I will not eat meat; and someone among them said: I will not lie down in bed.
He the Holy Prophet praised Allah and glorified Him, and said: What has happened to these people that they say so and so, whereas I observe prayer and sleep too; I observe fast and suspend observing them; I marry women also? And he who turns away from my Sunnah, he has no relation with Me. Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas Allah be pleased with him reported: The Messengger of Allah may peace be upon him rejected the idea of Uthman b.
Muz'unliving in celibacy saying : And if he the Holy Prophet had given me permission We would have got ourselves castrated. Sa'id b. Abi Waqqas saying that the idea of 'Uthman b. Maz'un for living in celibacy was rejected by the Holy Prophet , and if he had been given permission they would have got themselves castrated.
Abi Waqqas Allah be pleased with him saying that Uthman b. Maz'un decided to live in celibacy, but Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him forbade him to do so, and if he had permitted him, we would have got ourselves castrated. Jabir reported that Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him saw a woman, and so he came to his wife, Zainab, as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her.
He then went to his Companions and told them: The woman advances and retires in the shape of a devil, so when one of you sees a woman, he should come to his wife, for that will repel what he feels in his heart.
Jabir b. Jabir heard Allah's Apostle may peace be upon him say: When a woman fascinates any one of you and she captivates his heart, he should go to his wife and have an intercourse with her, for it would repel what he feels. Mas'ud reported: We were on an expedition with Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him and we had no women with us. We said: Should we not have ourselves castrated?
He the Holy Prophet forbade us to do so He then granted us permission that we should contract temporary marriage for a stipulated period giving her a garment, and 'Abdullah then recited this verse: 'Those who believe do not make unlawful the good things which Allah has made lawful for you, and do not transgress. Allah does not like trangressers" al-Qur'an, v.
This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Jarir with the same chain of transmitters and he also recited this above-mentioned verse to us, but he did not say that 'Abdullah recited it. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Isma'il with the same chain of transmitters and the words are : "We were young, so we said: Allah's Messenger, should we not have ourselves castrated?
But he the narrator did not say; We were on an expedition. Salama b. Akwa' and Jabir b. Abdullah reported: Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him came to us and permitted us to contract temporary marriage. Ibn Uraij reported: 'Ati' reported that jibir b. Abdullah came to perform 'Umra, and we came to his abode, and the people asked him about different things, and then they made a mention of temporary marriage, whereupon he said: Yes, we had been benefiting ourselves by this temporary marriage during the lifetime of theHoly Prophet may peace be upon him and during the tinie of Abi!
Bakr and 'Umar. Abu Nadra reported: While I was in the company of Jabir b. Abdullah, a person came to him and said that Ibn 'Abbas and Ibn Zubair differed on the two types of Mut'as Tamattu' of Hajj and Tamattu' with women , whereupon Jabir said: We used to do these two during the lifetime of Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him.
Umar then forbade us to do them, and so we did not revert to them. Iyas b. Salama reported on the authority of his father that Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him gave sanction for contracting temporary marriage for three nights in the year of Autas and then forbade it. Sabra Juhanni reported: Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him permitted temporary marriage for us. So I and another person went out and saw a woman of Bana 'Amir, who was like a young long-necked she-camel.
We presented ourselves to her for contracting temporary marriage , whereupon she said: What dower would you give me? I said: My cloak. And my companion also said: My cloak. And the cloak of-my companion was superior to my cloak, but I was younger than he. So when she looked at the cloak of my companion she liked it, and when she cast a glance at me I looked more attractive to her.
She then said: Well, you and your cloak are sufficient for me. I remained with her for three nights, and then Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him said: He who has any such woman with whom he had contracted temporary marriage, he should let her off.
Rabi' b. Sabra reported that his father went on an expedition with Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him during the Victory of Mecca, and we stayed there for fifteen days i.
So I and another person of my tribe went out, and I was more handsome than he, whereas he was almost ugly. Each one of us had a cloaks, My cloak was worn out, whereas the cloak of my cousin was quite new.
As we reached the lower or the upper side of Mecca, we came across a young woman like a young smart long-necked she-camel. We said: Is it possible that one of us may contract temporary marriage with you? She said: What will you give me as a dower?
Each one of us spread his cloak. She began to cast a glance on both the persons. My companion also looked at her when she was casting a glance at her side and he said: This cloak of his is worn out, whereas my cloak is quite new. She, however, said twice or thrice: There is no harm in accepting this cloak the old one.
So I contracted temporary marriage with her, and I did not come out of this until Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him declared it forbidden. S'abra al-jahanni reported on the authority of his father. We went with Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him to Mecca during the year of Victory and he narrated like this a hadith transmitted by Bishr the previous one but with this addition: "She said: Can it be possible?
Sabra al-Juhanni reported on the authority of his father that while he was with Allah's Messenger may peace be upon hm he said: 0 people, I had permitted you to contract temporary marriage with women, but Allah has forbidden it now until the Day of Resurrection. So he who has any woman with this type of marriage contract he should let her off, and do not take back anything you have given to then as dower.