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During the next eight years I sold my products to some of the biggest accounts in San Diego, including school districts, city and county governments, cleaning contractors, and the automotive industry.
In the beginning I found, and bought, many expensively priced formula books. But although they contained plenty of formulas, they lacked in the basic how and why of detergent compounding. Or worse, they were so technically oriented I could not understand the text. What I wanted most was just a straightforward book on the craft of formulating and compounding industrial detergents.
So, in the end, I ended up writing this one. This book will give the novice a basic understanding of the terminology, products, and methods available to the detergent formulator.
I have tried not to be too technical, keeping in mind that the beginner does not want to be inundated with science, but would rather deal with simple and practical applications.
Nonetheless, some familiarity of the detergent science is necessary if only to deal intelligently with suppliers talk the same language , and to fully understand the formulas themselves.
I am deeply indebted to all the chemical manufacturers and suppliers listed in this book for their invaluable aid and information. Without their help I never could have started and run my own chemical business, nor have written this text. Every formula listed in the Formulary section is credited to a specific manufacturer, using the original name of the formula from the manufacturer. Trade name products are listed in bold face,-more information on those products, manufacturer, properties, etc…, is listed in Appendix A.
The information contained in this book is for study only, and neither I, the publisher, nor the manufacturers listed, assume any responsibility for the actual use of the chemicals, formulas, or methods presented. From that simple premise all formulas are designed, although the variety of soils and surfaces encountered will give an almost infinite range of formulating possibilities.
An effective, general-purpose detergent must be capable of four basic cleaning functions. First, since most soil is acidic in nature, it must be able to neutralize acidic soil components. Secondly, to clean oil and grease from a surface, it must be able to emulsify, or homogenize, oil and grease into tiny water dispersible particles.
Third, it must deflocculate, or break down, particulate soils such as carbon, dust, and clay, into very fine particles. And fourth, once the above three functions are accomplished, the detergent should keep the soil in suspension so that redeposition onto the surface just cleaned does not occur during rinsing.
Detergents universally use two components to accomplish these functions: surfactants and builders. Surfactants can be either a liquid or a powdered ingredient comprised of organic molecules.
Builders are inorganic ingredients, usually in powdered form, such as phosphates, silicates, carbonates, and orthophosphates. The combination of surfactants and builders is the basis of detergent compounding. As a detergent is formulated, different weight may be given to each of the four basic cleaning functions, depending on the intended use of the detergent.
Consideration will also be given to the type of surface to be cleaned to prevent possible damage to the substrate. In addition, there are three other factors that influence the effectiveness of a detergent: agitation, time, and heat. For example, if a soak tank is set up and a greasy panel is immersed into a detergent solution, the detergent will show a certain level of cleaning effectiveness after a set period of time. Increase the time and the effectiveness goes up. Add agitation and heat and maximum effectiveness is achieved.
The combined action of detergent, agitation, time, and heat give the best results. Leave one factor out, and you must compensate with more of the others. These variables account for the different products produced today. There are hand dish- washing detergents and machine dish-washing detergents, baby shampoos and pet shampoos, engine degreasers and car wash detergents; all purpose cleaners, metal cleaners, solvent-based cleaners, hand cleaners, concentrated products and RTU ready to use cleaners, each different, but all accomplishing the basic function of removing soil from a surface.
It is important to note the difference between the terms detergent and soap. Soap is commonly produced when a fatty acid is neutralized by a sodium or potassium base. Up until the 's soap was the primary cleansing agent used for most types of cleaning.
The introduction of synthetic surfactants, with their superior cleaning and rinsing capability, has sharply reduced the use of soap products. However, the terms soap and detergent are oftentimes used interchangeably, and sometimes detergent formulations will actually contain a varying amount of soap.
Surfactants Water alone does not have sufficient detergency to produce the results we normally would desire. That's not to say that water alone is not capable of cleaning. Anybody who has taken the garden hose to the family car will admit it looks better after a quick rinse. And a good rainstorm removes a great amount of dirt and grime.
But the cleaning ability of plain water can be improved tremendously by the small addition of a surfactant. The word surfactant is a contraction of "surface active agent. The anionics have a negative charge. Nonionics have no charge. Cationics are positively charged. And amphoterics can be either negative or positive. Surfactants lower the surface tension of a liquid. Added to water, for example, water will seem "wetter" and penetrate through to surfaces and surround soil particles for better cleaning.
Surfactants also reduce the interfacial tension between two liquids. Let's look at one type of surfactants called ethoxylated nonylphenols. They are nonionic and are comprised with molecules having an oil-soluble lipophile hydrocarbon end and a water-soluble hydrophile polyalkoxylate chain. The lipophile used is nonylphenol; the hydrophile used is ethylene oxide. The more ethylene oxide the greater the water solubility of the surfactant.
A nonylphenol modified ethoxylated with four moles of ethylene oxide per mole of nonylphenol is soluble in kerosene, but not in water. A nonylphenol modified with 13 moles of ethylene oxide is soluble in water, but not in kerosene. It is a unit of measurement. HLB's range from 1 - 20, the higher numbers representing higher water solubility.
The number following the NP is the average number of moles of ethylene oxide added. A range of would make a good wetting agent. From is good as an all- purpose detergent. And is good for solubilizing other ingredients. It is also possible to combine surfactants with different HLB values. For example, a simple detergent formula that calls for ten parts NP-9 dissolved into 90 parts water would be improved by the addition of 2 parts NP Normally, NP-6 would not be water soluble, but the NP-9 will act as a solubilizer.
The NP-6 will increase the cleaning ability of the detergent on oils and grease. Anionics are high-foaming surfactants commonly used in hair shampoos, car wash detergents, hand dish wash detergents, etc One of the most common is sodium lauryl sulfate.
Because anionics are negatively charged, they are deactivated by positively charged hard water ions. When using anionics care must be taken to include chelating agents to deactivate hard water ions. Other common anionics are alcohol sulfates, alcohol ether sulfates, ordinary soap, and alkylaryl sulfonates see section on LAS.
Cationic surfactants are generally used in anti-static products such as fabric softeners, hair conditioners, and in sanitizing compounds. Because they are positively charged, they are not compatible with anionics. Common cationics are quaternary ammonium compounds.
They are anionic at an alkaline pH, have no charge at neutral pH, and cationic at acidic pH. Due to their mildness and high foaming properties, amphoterics are used in personal care products and as substitutes for anionics when cationics are present. Examples of amphoterics are lauroamphopropylsulfonate and cocoamphopropylsulfonate. However, there can be significant crossover depending on the individual product.
Builders accomplish this through several means. First, most builders act as water softeners. That is to say the builders either precipitate or sequester calcium and magnesium ions in hard water and prevent them from interfering with the surfactants, especially anionics. When precipitation occurs, the hardness ions form insoluble salts that drop out of solution. Sequestration, on the other hand, occurs when the positively charged hardness ions are surrounded by the negatively charged builder and are thereby made inactive.
Sequestration is preferable over precipitation because precipitated salts tend to redeposit onto surfaces being cleaned, forming that hard, white-looking scale buildup.
Sequestered hardness ions stay in solution and are rinsed away. Secondly, builders impart a reserve alkalinity to the cleaning solution. Acidic soils lower the pH of a cleaning solution to below the optimum level needed for the surfactant to perform well. Builders act as a buffer against acidic soils by neutralizing them and maintaining the pH at a designed level of alkalinity.
Third, builders tend to break down larger clumps of soil into tiny particles.
ISBN 13: 9781588988683
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How to Formulate & Compound Industrial Detergents
How to formulate, compound, and manufacture industrial detergents. Contains formulas to review and study, along with the author's detailed notes on each one. Convert currency. Add to Basket. Paperback or Softback. Condition: New. Seller Inventory BBS