Psicothema, 17, Ato, E. Assadi, S. Effect of sociocultural context and parenting style on scholastic achievement among Iranian adolescents. Social Development, 16, Psicothema, 13,
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A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. There are many differing theories and opinions on the best ways to rear children, as well as differing levels of time and effort that parents are willing to invest.
Many parents create their own style from a combination of factors, and these may evolve over time as the children develop their own personalities and move through life's stages. One of the best known theories of parenting style was developed by Diana Baumrind. The theory was later extended to include negligent parents disregarding the children, and focusing on other interests.
A number of ethical parenting styles have been proposed, some based on the authoritarian model of strict obedience to scriptural law for example in the Bible , others based on empathy with the emotional state of a child. Beginning in the 17th century, two philosophers independently wrote works that have been widely influential in child rearing. John Locke 's book Some Thoughts Concerning Education is a well known foundation for educational pedagogy from a Puritan standpoint.
Locke highlights the importance of experiences to a child's development, and recommends developing their physical habits first. Of these, Rousseau is more consistent with slow parenting , and Locke is more for concerted cultivation.
Other theorists, mainly from the twentieth century, have focused on how children develop and have had a significant impact on childhood education and how parents rear their children. Jean Piaget 's theory of cognitive development describes how children represent and reason about the world.
Piaget was a pioneer in the field of child development and continues to influence parents, educators and other theorists. Erik Erikson , a developmental psychologist, proposed eight life stages through which each person must develop. In each stage, they must understand and balance two conflicting forces, and so parents might choose a series of parenting styles that helps each child as appropriate at each stage. The first five of his eight stages occur in childhood: The virtue of hope requires balancing trust with mistrust, and typically occurs from birth to one year old.
Will balances autonomy with shame and doubt around the ages of two to three. Purpose balances initiative with guilt around the ages of four to six years.
Competence balances industry against inferiority around ages seven to Fidelity contrasts identity with role confusion, in ages 13 to The remaining adult virtues are love, care and wisdom. Rudolf Dreikurs believed that pre-adolescent children's misbehaviour was caused by their unfulfilled wish to be a member of a social group.
He argued that they then act out a sequence of four mistaken goals: first they seek attention. If they do not get it, they aim for power , then revenge and finally feel inadequate. This theory is used in education as well as parenting, forming a valuable theory upon which to manage misbehaviour. Other parenting techniques should also be used to encourage learning and happiness. Frank Furedi is a sociologist with a particular interest in parenting and families.
He believes that the actions of parents are less decisive than others claim. He describes the term infant determinism , [ 4 ] as the determination of a person's life prospects by what happens to them during infancy, arguing that there is little or no evidence for its truth.
While other commercial, governmental and other interests constantly try to guide parents to do more and worry more for their children, he believes that children are capable of developing well in almost any circumstances. Furedi quotes Steve Petersen of Washington University: "development really wants to happen.
It takes very impoverished environments to interfere with development In her research, Diana Baumrind found what she considered to be the four basic elements that could help shape successful parenting: responsiveness vs. From these, she identified three general parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Baumrind believed that parents should be neither punitive nor aloof. These parenting styles are meant to describe normal variations in parenting, not deviant parenting, such as might be observed in abusive homes.
The parent is demanding and responsive. Elaborate becomes propagative parenting. Authoritative parenting, also called 'assertive democratic' [ 14 ] or 'balanced' parenting, [ 15 ] is characterized by a child-centered approach that holds high expectations of maturity. They often help them to find appropriate outlets to solve problems. Authoritative parents set limits and demand maturity, but when punishing a child, the parent will explain his or her motive for their punishment.
Parents will set clear standards for their children, monitor limits that they set, and also allow children to develop autonomy. They also expect mature, independent, and age-appropriate behavior of children. This is the most recommended style of parenting by child-rearing experts. The parent is demanding but not responsive. Elaborate becomes totalitarian parenting. Authoritarian parenting, also called strict parenting , [ 15 ] is characterized by high expectations of conformity and compliance to parental rules and directions, while allowing little open dialogue between parent and child.
Children resulting from this type of parenting may have less social competence because the parent generally tells the child what to do instead of allowing the child to choose by him or herself. In some cases, these practices have been described as authoritarian. The parent is responsive but not demanding.
Elaborate becomes freeranger parenting. Indulgent parenting, also called permissive, nondirective or lenient, [ 15 ] is characterized as having few behavioral expectations for the child. Indulgent parents do not require children to regulate themselves or behave appropriately. This may result in creating spoiled brats or "spoiled sweet" children depending on the behavior of the children.
Children of permissive parents may tend to be more impulsive, and as adolescents, may engage more in misconduct, and in drug use. They mature quickly and are able to live life without the help of someone else.
The parent is neither demanding nor responsive. Cannot be elaborate. Neglectful parenting is also called uninvolved, detached, dismissive or hands-off. Neglectful parenting can also mean dismissing the children's emotions and opinions.
Parents are emotionally unsupportive of their children, but will still provide their basic needs. Provide basic needs meaning: food, housing, and toiletries or money for the prementioned. Many children of this parenting style often attempt to provide for themselves or halt depending on the parent to get a feeling of being independent and mature beyond their years. Children become emotionally withdrawn from social situations. This disturbed attachment also impacts relationships later on in life.
In adolescence, they may show patterns of truancy and delinquency. What may be right for one family or one child may not be suitable for another. With authoritarian and permissive indulgent parenting on opposite sides of the spectrum, most conventional and modern models of parenting fall somewhere in between.
The model or style that parents employ depends partly on how they themselves were reared, what they consider good parenting, the child's temperament, their current environmental situation, and whether they place more importance on their own needs or whether they are striving to further their child's future success. Parents who place greater importance on the child's physical security may be more authoritarian, while parents who are more concerned with intellectual development may push their children into a number of organized extra-curricular activities such as music and language lessons.
One of the biggest effects on parenting is socio-economic status, in reference with ethnicity and culture as well. For example, living in a dangerous neighborhood could make a parent more authoritarian due to fear of their environment.
Parents who are more highly educated tend to have better jobs and better financial security, and this reduction of potential stressors has a significant effect on parenting. Estilos Parentales. Furedi cita a Steve Petersen, de la Universidad de Washington: "El desarrollo realmente quiere ocurrir. Se necesita ambientes muy pobres para interferir con el desarrollo Autoritario, autoritario, permisivo y. Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior.
Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75 1 , Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 4 1, Pt. Parental disciplinary patterns and social competence in children. Los cuatro estilos de crianza de Maccoby y Martin. Los tres estilos de crianza de Baumrind en cursiva. El padre es exigente y receptivo. Elaborado se convierte en una propagacion de la crianza de los hijos. A menudo les ayudan a encontrar salidas apropiadas para resolver problemas. El padre es exigente, pero no receptivo.
Lo complejo se convierte en crianza totalitario. Buscar en este sitio. Best works of Final countown: Exam schedules. Business transl Wk Credit market crisis - november Final Project: Bilingual presentations on International Groups.
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Los estilos educativos parentales, ¿Cuál estás utilizando? ¿Es el correcto?