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Based on Tolstoy's short story the present paper analyzes the multiple dimensions of the process of illness. It starts with the argument that illness is not an a priori totality, but a trajectory of associations between the sick person, the doctor, family members, friends and caregivers. Acting, being affected, thinking and feeling all come together in the development of these associations.
Long-term illness is therefore a mode of immersion of the sick person in networks of relations that come to be a part of her everyday life. A morte de Ivan Ilitch. For Vladimir Nabokov, for example, it is one of the most artistic and perfect literary works. In addition to being the object of innumerous literary analyses, the story has been scrutinized from diverse angles.
Its reading raises questions regarding the meaning of life and death 2 2. Flew A. Tolstoi and the meaning of life. Etics [serial on Internet] Jan [cited Jan 20]; 73 2 ; [about 8 p]. Halperin I. The structural integrity of the dead of Ivan Il'ic. Trindade AK, Rozenfield L. Our focus is to look at how illness is understood in the story. What does this literary work tell us about the process of becoming ill? The story is relatively simple: a detached Russian magistrate suddenly sees his life turned upside down due to illness subsequently leading to his death.
The narrative sequence the compositional structure of the text can be summarized in the following manner: a initial situation a judge in St. Petersburg, Ivan Ilyich, leads a life with little excitement and few difficulties ; b the triggering moment as the result of a fall, he starts to feel pain one day in his lower abdomen on the right hand side ; c action and evaluation at the beginning, the pain seems temporary and trivial; over time however, it worsens; he rejects medical treatment; his physical state deteriorates; in agony, he starts to realize the seriousness of his situation ; d outcome looking back over his life, the values he held, and the social world he inhabited ; final situation death.
In summary, the narrative is fundamentally centered on the gradual process of transformation of a human being. Moribund, he evaluates his relationships with his companions and comes to realize the insignificance and fragility of human existence. He undertakes, as Miranda 5 5. Cecilio LCO. Interface Botucatu ; 13 1 Tolstoy wishes to give us an understanding of the meaning of human existence.
However, the message is somewhat ambiguous. Miranda JVA. Nuances ; 27 2 It was a significant moment of his life, a period during which he criticized various aspects of society and the culture of his time. He proposes an art based on morality, in which the artistwould transmit the religious feelings and conscience of his people.
With this objective in mind, the text should be immediately accessible or understandable and familiar; have a simple and convincing story; be written in language without verbal refinements, whichflowswell.
Such a pedagogical mission sought to unite fictional aspectsand believability. From this perspective, it starts from the principle that literature should seek elements in extra-textual references that would allow the reader to see the fictional fact always in analogy to a given referent. Through these effects of believability, the writer seeks to facilitate the acceptance of the work by the public 7 7.
The realist treatment made by Grigorovich of Russian farming life was highly esteemed by Tolstoy. This dimension is shown through the day-to-day life of Ivan Ilyich with doctors, family members, friends and work colleagues.
Tolstoy is not particularly interested in exploring the representations of the character regarding his illness. In summary, Tolstoy makes us understand the disease beyond simply a medical explicative model. In the short story, illness is fundamentally understood according to the coordinates of day-to-day life, through the practical knowledge of dealing with social situations and structures.
Tolstoy's work leads us to think about the multiple dimensions of the process of illness of the protagonist. The main objective of the present article is precisely to identify some of these dimensions.
As we will seek to argue, illness is not a totality constituted a priori or a mere question of representation or projection but a flow of associations between the patient, the doctor, family, friends and caregivers. In the short story, Ivan Ilyich's actions, his being affected, thoughts and feelings regarding the situation are always described as phenomena derived via these associations.
We use literature because we start from the idea that narrative can present us with rich and subtle lay knowledge regarding health, because, amongst other aspects, it describes knowledge as constructed via the diverse mediations by which actors are related to the institutional contexts of diagnosis and care 8 8. Sussekind F. Tal Brasil, qual romance? Exploring literature to understand illness from the perspective of the social sciences requires some initial considerations.
Firstly, we are not concerned with developing a literary or critical analysis, of breaking down or separating constitutive elements of a text to better understand its literary aspects or judge the aesthetic principals and standards of taste of a certain era.
Nor do we wish to mount a discussion regarding Tolstoy's short story with the aim of identifying and characterizing the sociocultural basis on which the content is based, the forms, the genres or the institutions of literary production. It is unnecessary to reaffirm that all literary creation is a product of an epoch and that the writer's creative capacity develops in a field of possibilities that circumscribe their life. However, as we will seek to briefly argue, literature is much more than the mirror of a society.
The idea of a relationship between the social sciences and literature does not constitute something new in the academic world 9 9. This does not mean to say that these two areas of knowledge do not hold important differences. The literary work goes beyond the parameters by which the social sciences could understand it. Maybe, given this, literature always has something to say to the social sciences. In recent decades, philosophers and scientists such as Feyerabend, Davidson, Putnam, Richard Rorty, Homi Bhabah, Alasdir Mac Intyre and Charles Taylor have sought to reestablish dialogue between the social sciences and literature.
Lepenies W. Nouzeilles G. Davis C. Bodily and narrative forms. The influence of medicine on American Literature, Stanford: Stanford University Press; In Brazil, Tulo Montenegro 13 Clarke B, Aykock W.
The body and the text. Comparative essays in literature and medicine. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press; Montenegro TH. Tuberculose e literatura. Notas de pesquisa. Rio de Janeiro: A Casa do Livro; Beiguelman P. Por que Lima Barreto. Ortiz R. We begin from the understanding that literature provides new perspectives regarding things and people, instituting social imaginaries.
It moves us, entertains us, provokes surprise and affects our ways of thinking, collective attitudes and ideologies. Literary narratives contain ideas, descriptions, interpretations and personal and collective events that are, in themselves, a valuable way of understanding cultural phenomena. D'Incao MA. According to this philosopher, the human being is a novelist of herself, since she cannot live without inventing the character and the story.
As Merleau-Ponty 19 Ortega y Gasset J. Obras Completas. Madrid: Revista de Ocidente; Tomo III Through their artwork, the artist stimulates us to look behind the concepts that we construct based on our direct experience and to recover this experience.
Therefore, it is via the conventional meaning of words that literature creates parallel worlds, permitting us to see in a different way the world in which we liveand amplifying our sense of the possible meanings of experience.
However, it should be highlighted that it is fundamental that the vision of the writer should not stray too far from the generally accepted vision in the day-today world at the risk of no longer communicating with their public. The artistic vision exploits something that we have in common so that it can present new modes of perception. The main observation about the short story regards Ivan Ilyich's initial way of life, that is, the public persona that he adopts, his detached way of being.
We could say that Ivan Ilyich was a man immersed in what Oretega Y Gasset called the state of alteration 20 Merleau-Ponty M. A arte e o mundo percebido. In: Merleau-Ponty M. Conversas — Governed by his form, consigned to his circumstances and to his preconceived conduct, he is immersed in the things of the world as one of them. He is absorbed by the exterior impressions, oriented by the usual, by the expected, by the values and principals of everybody and nobody in particular. He was offered another position in another province as an investigating judge.
The illness causes an interruption in Ivan Ilyich's life, an interruption in terms of his usual way of being with others.
His body acquires an otherness, manifesting itself as an independent entity that resists his will and understanding.
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A Morte de Ivan Ilitch
Pode ler — disse Piotr Ivanovich, passando o jornal que ainda cheirava a tinta a Fiodr Vassilyevich. Ivan Ilitch havia sido colega deles e era muito querido por todos. Seu posto ficara em aberto, mas corria que, no caso de sua morte, provavelmente Alexeyev seria nomeado seu sucessor e Vinnikov ou Shtabel ocupariam o lugar de Alexeyev. Tenho certeza de que agora eu pego o lugar de Shtabel, ou de Vinniko! Agora era ele quem tinha de morrer. Piotr Ivanovich deixou que as duas mulheres passassem e as seguiu. Dois rapazes, um deles estudante, que deviam ser sobrinhos, vinham saindo do quarto fazendo o sinal-da-cruz e ele aproveitou e fez o mesmo.
A morte de Ivan Iltich
Based on Tolstoy's short story the present paper analyzes the multiple dimensions of the process of illness. It starts with the argument that illness is not an a priori totality, but a trajectory of associations between the sick person, the doctor, family members, friends and caregivers. Acting, being affected, thinking and feeling all come together in the development of these associations. Long-term illness is therefore a mode of immersion of the sick person in networks of relations that come to be a part of her everyday life. A morte de Ivan Ilitch. For Vladimir Nabokov, for example, it is one of the most artistic and perfect literary works.
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