PUNJABI KAIDA PDF

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Punjabi descended from the Shauraseni language of medieval northern India and became a distinct language during the 11th century. There are two main varieties of Punjabi: Eastern Punjabi and Western Punjabi, each of which has a number of dialects. Eastern Punjabi is spoken by about Western Punjabi is spoken by about It is also known as Lahanda, Lahnda or Lahndi. Punjabi is one of India's 22 official languages and it is the first official language in East Punjab.

In Pakistan Punjabi is the second most widely-spoken language but has no official status. The Gurmukhi alphabet developed from the Landa alphabet and was standardised during the 16th century by Guru Angad Dev Ji, the second Sikh guru. The Shahmukhi alphabet is a version of the Persian alphabet used to write Punjabi in Pakistan.

The name Shahmukhi means "from the King's mouth". The Shahmukhi alphabet currently used was developed in Pakistan in It is also known as the Punjabi alphabet. The chart below shows the Shahmuki script with Gurmukhi equivalents. A recording of this text by Asha of Punjabi Hindi Online. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Some information provided by Rana Zubair, a student and writer from Sahiwal district of Punjab in Pakistan. Other languages written with the Arabic and Gurmukhi scripts. If you need to type in many different languages, the Q International Keyboard can help.

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Punjabi (Gurmukhi) Alphabet Chart

Commonly regarded as a Sikh script, [1] [2] [3] Gurmukhi is used in Punjab , India as the official script of the Punjabi language. Gurmukhi evolved in cultural and historical circumstances notably different from other regional scripts, [12] for the purpose of recording scriptures of Sikhism , a far less Sanskritized cultural tradition than others of the subcontinent. From the 10th century onwards, regional differences started to appear between the Sharada script used in Punjab, the Hill States partly Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir. Sharada proper was eventually restricted to very limited ceremonial use in Kashmir, as it grew increasingly unsuitable for writing the Kashmiri language. The local Takri variants got the status of official scripts in some of the Punjab Hill States, and were used for both administrative and literary purposes until the 19th century. Landa means alphabet "without tail", [13] implying that the script did not have vowel symbols.

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Shahmukhi alphabet

Shahmukhi is written from right to left, while Gurmukhi is written from left to right. The Shahmukhi alphabet was first used by the Sufi poets of the Punjab ; [ citation needed ] it became the conventional writing style for the Muslim populace of the Pakistani province of Punjab following the Partition of India , while the largely Hindu and Sikh modern-day state of Punjab, India adopted the Gurmukhi or the Devanagari scripts to record the Punjabi language. Though not normally written and only implied, [4] like Urdu, Shahmukhi also has diacritics, taken from the Arabic language, [9] to express short vowels. The digraphs of aspirated consonants are as follows. Shahmukhi has more letters added to the Urdu base to represent sounds not present in Urdu, which already has additional letters added to the Arabic and Persian base itself to represent sounds not present in Arabic. In Punjabi, there are many Arabic and Persian loanwords.

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Punjabi Kaida

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