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Short description Morphology Body Width: 10 cm. Body Thickness: 0. Mean live weight about g to g; body thickness about 4 mm. Body: cylindrical, elongate, with rounded ends. Tegument smooth, often covered by sand, but also showing round patches lacking sand. A red toxic fluid is secreted upon rubbing the body surface vigorously. Podia on bivium sparsely distributed, ending in a small disc around micrometer in diameter; podia on trivium numerous, short and stout, distributed on the radii and the interradii, their calcareous disc around 0.
Mouth: ventral, surrounded by 20 black tentacles. Anus terminal. Calcareous ring with large radial pieces and narrow interradials.
Cuvierian tubules absent. Color: entirely black. Spicules: tegument with tables and rosettes; tables with circular disc showing 8 holes 4 central and 4 smaller holes in between and s spire of 4 pillars, ending in maltese crown; rosettes small and simple, more abundant in ventral tegument; ventral podia without rods, but with pseudo-plates; dorsal podia and papillae with short rods, showing denticulate borders. Traditionally harvested, but the processed product is of low commercial value.
In recent times, due to increasing demand, this species also appears in the processed products of many Pacific Islands. Collected by hand at low tide while wading on the reefs, or by divers Ref. Processed to trepang in Puerto Princesa, Palawan Ref. A common shallow-water species, rarely found at depths of more than 20 m, mostly on inner and outer reef flats and back reefs or shallow coastal lagoons; abundant on sandy-muddy grounds with rubble or coral patches and in seagrass beds Ref.
Body is often almost completely covered by sand grains Ref. The mean population density is about 0. Inshore shallow-water populations are denser, composed of smaller individuals, while deeper or outer reef populations, individuals are more scattered and with larger sizes Ref.
Feeds on Halimeda sp. Known to release a wine-colored exudate when rubbed vigorously Ref. Inshore shallow-water populations composed of smaller individuals, and reproduce mostly by transversal fission, while in deeper or outer reef populations the individuals are larger, and reproduce sexually Ref. Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity Reproduction Spawning Eggs Fecundity Larvae Inshore shallow-water populations composed of smaller individuals, and reproduce mostly by transversal fission, while in deeper or outer reef populations the individuals are larger, and reproduce sexually Ref.
Tools E-book Field guide. Estimates of some properties based on models Preferred temperature Ref. Vulnerability Ref. Common name e. Caretta caretta. Native range All suitable habitat Point map Year This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed. The mean population density is around 0. E-book Field guide. References Mass conversion. Collaborators Pictures. Preferred temperature Ref. Price category Ref.
Native range All suitable habitat Point map Year This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Holothuria atra Jaeger, 1833
The sea cucumber Holothuria atra extracts have been evaluated for the presence of bioactive compounds and various biological activities. The methanol extracts showed anti proliferative activities against the Hela and MCF-7 cell lines. Similarly the inhibitory effects of Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 cells were detected using the plaque reduction assay. The extracts of H. The active fractions collected were observed for antimicrobial activity. The GC-MS analysis showed the availability of 59 compounds. The active bioactive compounds found in the H.
Author contributions: J. Amongst the earliest deuterostomes, the echinoderms are an evolutionary important group of ancient marine animals. Within this phylum, the holothuroids sea cucumbers are known to produce a wide range of glycoconjugate biopolymers with apparent benefits to health; therefore, they are of economic and culinary interest throughout the world. Other than their highly modified glycosaminoglycans e. Here, we used multi-step N-glycan fractionation to efficiently separate the anionic and neutral N-glycans before analyzing the N-glycans of the black sea cucumber Holothuria atra by MS in combination with enzymatic and chemical treatments. These analyses showed the presence of various fucosylated, phosphorylated, sialylated and multiply sulphated moieties as modifications of oligomannosidic, hybrid and complex-type N-glycans. The high degree of sulphation and fucosylation parallels the modifications previously observed on holothuroid glycosaminoglycans.
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