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Local species, the market, and transportation in embryological research: the study of polyembryony in armadillos in the early twentieth century. Susana V. The article examines the general affirmation that communication networks and mobility are important to science by examining how these factors played a relevant role in one specific case, that is, research on the embryology of certain species of armadillos in the early twentieth century. As we show, access to pregnant females of the species and transport time from the wild to the laboratory were significant issues in the early days of such research. The strategies used to obtain field samples, the temporality of certain phenomena, the commercial circuits of which the organisms under study were a part, and the transformations they underwent in the laboratory all afford a glimpse at some aspects of how these scientists approached their work and what problems they faced in producing new knowledge.

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Local species, the market, and transportation in embryological research: the study of polyembryony in armadillos in the early twentieth century. Susana V. The article examines the general affirmation that communication networks and mobility are important to science by examining how these factors played a relevant role in one specific case, that is, research on the embryology of certain species of armadillos in the early twentieth century.

As we show, access to pregnant females of the species and transport time from the wild to the laboratory were significant issues in the early days of such research.

The strategies used to obtain field samples, the temporality of certain phenomena, the commercial circuits of which the organisms under study were a part, and the transformations they underwent in the laboratory all afford a glimpse at some aspects of how these scientists approached their work and what problems they faced in producing new knowledge. Keywords: history of embryology, armadillos, scientific practices, polyembryony.

En ambos casos, todos los fetos eran machos. Esto remite a algunos problemas interesantes en la historia de las ciencias. Los diferentes momentos o etapas eran registrados y ordenados a partir de una serie de cortes preparados y observaciones obtenidas de diferentes individuos de la especie estudiada. Para cada momento o etapa del desarrollo, un nuevo organismo era matado y cortado para mirar en su interior un punto particular de tiempo. Figura 2. En los campos de la provincia de Buenos Aires, tanto la caza de la mulita como la del peludo era un pasatiempo popular: "la manera de cazarlos como su carne es muy apetecida es bien simple.

Los cordon-bleu de Buenos Ayres, particularmente franceses, la condimentan demasiado en los hoteles. Solo, es manjar que excluye el vino De hecho, entre y tuvo muchas mulitas en cautividad, las cuales fueron muy susceptibles a contraer enfermedades. El estudio del armadillo de Tejas. During the past two years we have had the opportunity of examining females of the native armadillo, together with a considerable number of males.

During the breeding season hunters employed to collect material for us covered a wide range of territory in south-central Texas. These men were frequently obliged to haul the living animals through rough country for distances of fifty miles or more in order to reach an express office whence they could be shipped to our laboratories. As a rule a number of days elapsed between the capture of the annuals and their arrival in Austin.

This delay would serve in part to explain our ill success in securing the earliest embryonic stages. In order to obtain a complete series we believe it will be necessary either to breed the animals in captivity or to accompany the hunters on their expeditions so as to lose no time in examining freshly fertilize females.

Although we fully expect to secure the earliest stages in the course of time it seems inadvisable for us to postpone the publication of the results thus far obtained Newman, Patterson, , p.

Frente a estos problemas, los autores parecieron optar por la segunda estrategia: trasladarse hasta las poblaciones donde se cazaban y comercializaban armadillos. Armadillo hunting has come to be a recreation and a source of additional income for large numbers of young American and Mexican farmers. When they come to town to sell produce and purchase supplies they bring also many armadillo baskets which they have learned to make in an expert fashion and for which there is a ready market.

One dealer with whom I am well acquainted claims to have shipped no less than At least two other firms have been almost equally active Newman, , p. Al trasladarse Newman a la Universidad de Chicago se dividieron los estudios. I obtained one vesicle which clearly represents a further advance in the progress of vacuolization, and yet one in which the completed stage of the vesicle has not been attained. Unfortunately the specimen became slightly crushed in the course of transportation from the field to the laboratory, after it had been fixed and partially hardened.

I therefore deem it unsafe to base any definite conclusions upon its structures; but simply give a photograph of one of the sections Problems of individual development: Descriptive embryological morphology in America at the turn of the century.

Journal of the History of Biology , Dordrecht, v. BOSE, Walter. Historia de las comunicaciones. In: Academia Nacional de la Historia. Buenos Aires: El Ateneo, v. Life's splendid drama : evolutionary biology and the reconstruction of life's ancestry, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Polyembryony and the determination of sex: resume of observations of P. The Smithsonian Report for Washington, n. Sobre el armadillo Cachicana novemcincta. Revue des Travaux Scientifiques , Paris, t.

Die Entwicklung der Mulita. Anatomischer Anzeiger , Jena, v. Morphologisches Jahrbuch , Leipzig, v. British Journal for the History of Science , Cambridge, v. Saber y Tiempo , Buenos Aires, v. El sabio tiene una patria. Ciencia Hoy , Buenos Aires, v. Elias Metschnikoff, Anton Dohrn and the Metazoan common ancestor. In: Argentina. Buenos Aires: Ediciones Talleres de la Penitenciaria nacional. A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology. Visual standards and disciplinary change: normal plates, tables and stages in embryology.

History of Science , Cambridge, v. Giving body to embryos: modeling mecahism and microtome in late nineteenth-Century anatomy. Isis , Washington, v. Physiologische Abteilung , Leipzig, p. Nachtrag zur Entwicklung von Praopus. Paris: Reinwald Libraire-Editeur. Barcelona: Labor. Embryology and empire: the Balfour students and the quest for intermediate forms in the laboratory of the Pacific. In: Macleod, R. Darwin's laboratory : evolutionary theory and natural history in the Pacific.

Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. What determines sex? Zoology of the Pacific Railroad surveys. American Zoologist , Utica, v. Buenos Aires: Losada. New York: The Macmillan Company. Madrid: Calpe. The natural history of the nine-banded armadillo de Tejas. American Naturalist , Chicago, v. Development of the nine-banded armadillo from the primitive streak stage to birth; with special reference to the question of specific polyembryony.

Journal of Morphology , Philadelphia, v. Biology takes form. Animal morphology and the german universities Polyembryonic development in Tatusia Novemcincta. Bones and devices in the constitution of paleontology in Argentine at the end of the nineteenth century.

Science in Context , Cambridge, v. In: Visacovsky, S. Historia y estilos de trabajo de campo en Argentina. Buenos Aires: Editorial Antropofagia. The amazing armadillo. Austin: University of Tejas Press. The ship as a scientific instrument in the eighteenth century. Osiris , Chicago, v. Horatio Hackett Newman. Science , Washington, v. Science along the railroad: expanding field work in the US central east.

Annals of Science , London, v. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Journal. ABSTRACT The article examines the general affirmation that communication networks and mobility are important to science by examining how these factors played a relevant role in one specific case, that is, research on the embryology of certain species of armadillos in the early twentieth century. How to cite this article.

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Any of the three primary layers formed in the early development of the embryo, the ectoderm, endoderm, or mesoderm, which give rise to specific tissues of the body. Gastrulation continues during the second week with the formation of the "epiblast", and is completed during the third week with the formation of the three "primary germ layers": ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Capas germinales. Access a collection of Canadian resources on all aspects of English and French, including quizzes. A collection of writing tools that cover the many facets of English and French grammar, style and usage. FAQ Frequently asked questions Display options.

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