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To precisely modulate Sessile serrated adenoma SSA vs. The morphologic distinction between various serrated polyps of the colorectum may be challenging. The distinction between sessile serrated adenoma SSA and traditional serrated adenoma TSA may be difficult using currently available criteria mostly based on cytologic characteristics.

We have evaluated 66 serrated polyps including 29 SSA, 18 TSA, and 19 hyperplastic polyps for overall shape of the polyps, architectural features of individual crypts, the presence of eosinophilic cytoplasm, size and distribution of the proliferation and maturation zones, as well as Ki and CK20 expression.

The extent of the expression of CK20 and Ki could not distinguish between the 3 types of serrated polyps, but the distribution of their expression was very helpful and differences were statistically significant. In serrated polyps, ectopic crypt formation ECF defined by the presence of ectopic crypts with their bases not seated adjacent to the muscularis mucosae was nearly exclusive to TSA and was found in all cases, while the presence of cytologic atypia and eosinophilia of the cytoplasm were characteristic, but not limited to TSA.

The presence of the ECF defines TSA in a more rigorous fashion than previous diagnostic criteria and also explains the biologic basis of exuberant protuberant growth associated with TSA and the lack of such growth in SSA. Recognition of this phenomenon may also help in exploring the genetic and molecular basis for differences between SSA and TSA, because these architectural abnormalities may well be a reflection of abnormalities in genetically programmed mucosal development.

Serrated adenoma of stomach: A premalignancy? Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Serrated adenoma is a newly described entity in the group of gastric adenomas.

Until date only 20 cases of gastric serrated adenoma have been reported. It is an important entity to be diagnosed accurately as it has a very high-risk of malignant transformation, especially those located in the cardia of stomach. Serrated adenoma associated with adenocarcinoma is more frequent in the elderly, but pure serrated adenoma is common in the young, in whom follow-up is mandatory. Gastric serrated adenoma has distinct location, definite histomorphology and characteristic Ki immunohistochemical staining.

Ki staining helps to differentiated pure serrated adenoma from those associated with adenocarcinoma. We present a young adult male, incidentally detected to have gastric serrated adenoma. Sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia: morphological patterns and correlations with MLH1 immunohistochemistry.

Sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia are rarely encountered and represent an intermediate step to malignant progression, frequently associated with loss of MLH1 expression. Accurate diagnosis of these lesions is important to facilitate appropriate surveillance, particularly because progression from dysplasia to carcinoma can be rapid. The current World Health Organization classification describes two main patterns of dysplasia occurring in sessile serrated adenomas, namely, serrated and conventional.

However, this may not adequately reflect the spectrum of changes seen by pathologists in routine practice. Furthermore, subtle patterns of dysplasia that are nevertheless associated with loss of MLH1 expression are not encompassed in this classification. We performed a morphological analysis of sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia with concurrent MLH1 immunohistochemistry with the aims of better defining the spectrum of dysplasia occurring in these lesions and correlating dysplasia patterns with MLH1 expression.

Minimal deviation dysplasia is defined by minor architectural and cytological changes that typically requires loss of MLH1 immunohistochemical expression to support the diagnosis. This morphological classification of sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia may represent an.

Self-assembled nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide AAO membrane with straight channels has long been an important tool in synthesizing highly ordered and vertically aligned quasi-1D nanostructures for various applications. Recently shape-selective nanomaterials have been achieved using AAO as a template. It is envisioned that nanowires with multi-branches will significantly increase the active functional sites for applications as sensors, catalysts, chemical cells, etc.

Here AAO membranes with serrated nanochannels have been successfully fabricated via a two-step annodization method. The formation of the serrated channels is attributed to the evolution of oxygen gas bubbles and the resulted plastic deformation in oxide membrane.

In order to reveal the inside channel structure, Platinum are electrodeposited into the AAO template. The as-synthesized serrated Pt nanowires demonstrate a superior electrocatalytic activity. This is attributed to the enhanced electric field strength around serrated tips as shown in the electric field simulation by COMOSL. Therefore, we hypothesized that COX-2 may play a less important role in the serrated pathway.

COX-2 overexpression becomes more frequent as tumors progress to higher grade neoplasias. Our observations suggest that COX-2 may play a less significant role in the serrated pathway of tumorigenesis; however, COX-2 may still play a role in later stage of the serrated pathway. Full Text Available Owls have developed serrations , comb-like structures, along the leading edge of their wings. Serrations were investigated from a morphological and a mechanical point of view, but were not yet quantitatively compared for different species.

Such a comparative investigation of serrations from species of different sizes and activity patterns may provide new information about the function of the serrations. Serrations on complete wings and on tenth primary remiges of seven owl species were investigated. Small, middle-sized, and large owl species were investigated as well as species being more active during the day and owls being more active during the night.

Serrations occurred at the outer parts of the wings, predominantly at tenth primary remiges, but also on further wing feathers in most species. Serration tips were oriented away from the feather rachis so that they faced into the air stream during flight.

The serrations of nocturnal owl species were higher developed as demonstrated by a larger inclination angle the angle between the base of the barb and the rachis, a larger tip displacement angle the angle between the tip of the serration and the base of the serration and a longer length. Putting the measured data into a clustering algorithm yielded dendrograms that suggested a strong influence of activity pattern, but only a weak influence of size on the development of the serrations.

Serrations are supposed to be involved in noise reduction during flight and also depend on the aerodynamic properties that in turn depend on body size. Since especially nocturnal owls have to rely on hearing during prey capture, the more pronounced serrations of nocturnal species lend further support to the notion that serrations have an important function in noise reduction. The differences in shape of the serrations investigated indicate that a silent flight requires well-developed serrations.

Background Owls have developed serrations , comb-like structures, along the leading edge of their wings. Results Serrations on complete wings and on tenth primary remiges of seven owl species were investigated. The serrations of nocturnal owl species were higher developed as demonstrated by a larger inclination angle the angle between the base of the barb and the rachis , a larger tip displacement angle the angle between the tip of the serration and the base of the serration and a longer length.

Conclusions Serrations are supposed to be involved in noise reduction during flight and also depend on the aerodynamic properties that in turn depend on body size. The genesis of their pleiotropic phenotypes is, however, poorly understood. We provide evidence that neither distorted depositions of cutin, nor deficiencies in the chemical composition of cuticular lipids, account for these features, instead suggesting that the mutants alleviate the functional disorder of the cuticle by reinforcing their defenses.

To better understand how plants adapt to these mutations, we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis. We found that apparent compensatory transcriptional responses in these mutants involve the induction of wax, cutin, cell wall, and defense genes.

To gain greater insight into the mechanism by which cuticular mutations trigger this response in the plants, we performed an overlap meta-analysis, which is termed MASTA MicroArray overlap Search Tool and Analysis, of differentially expressed genes. This suggested that different cell integrity pathways are recruited in cesA cellulose synthase and cuticular mutants. In confirmation of this notion, the se lcr and se bdg double mutants eradicate severe leaf deformations as well as the organ fusions that are typical of lcr and bdg and other cuticular mutants.

Also, lcr does not confer resistance to Botrytis cinerea in a se mutant background. A role for the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in development of intestinal serrated polyps in mice and humans. Epithelial cancers can be initiated by activating mutations in components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway such as v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 BRAF , v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog KRAS , or epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR.

Human intestinal serrated polyps are a heterogeneous group of benign lesions, but some progress to colorectal cancer. Polyp samples were obtained from adults during screening colonoscopies at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. We measured levels of EGFR protein and phosphorylation in human serrated polyps by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses.

Activation of EGFR signaling in the intestine of mice promotes development of serrated polyps. LES tests on airfoil trailing edge serration. In the present study, a large number of acoustic simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with different Trailing Edge Serrations TES. The acoustic solver is running on the platform Serrated leaf mutant in mungbean Vigna radiata L Wilczek. Dry dormant seeds of mungbean Vigna radiata L Wilczek were treated with gamma rays 15, 30 and 60 kR.

The serrated leaf mutation was noticed in M 2 of cultivar Pak 32 treated with 60 kR. Cf 14 plants, 3 showed the altered leaf structure and the others were normal.

The feature of this mutant was the deep serration of leaflet margins. The mutant had large thick leaflets with prominent venation. The mutant bred true in the M 3 and successive generation. Details of the morphological characteristics of the mutant are presented. The mutant exhibited slower growth particularly during the early stages of development, flowered later and attained shorter height. There was an increase in the number of pods, in seed weight and in seed protein content, but number of seed per pod was considerably reduced.

The seed coat colour showed a change from green to yellowish green. In the mutant's flowers the stamina were placed much below the stigma level and the stigma sometimes protruded the corolla. The low number of seeds per pod in the mutant could be due to reduced pollen fertility.

The mutant behaved as monogenic recessive. The mutant may have use as a green manure crop because of its large foliage and for the breeders as a genetic marker.

As the size of electric products such as mobile phones and smart watches decrease, the bolts used to assemble these products should also be miniaturized. A miniature-sized bolt has to provide sufficient joining torque and anti-releasing torque to keep the components together.

We studied a serrated bolt as a candidate for a miniature-sized fastener to increase the anti-releasing torque. In a serrated bolt, a serrated shape is formed on the bottom surface of the bolt head to create an obstacle to releasing. In this study, finite element analyses for the joining and releasing of bolts were carried out, and the anti-releasing performance was predicted.

Based on the results of analyses using various numbers of serrations and fastening depths, the effects of the number of serrations and fastening depth on the anti-releasing performance were investigated. The reason for this dichotomy is unknown. BRAF mutant microsatellite stable colorectal cancers with the AA genotype most likely arise in TSAs since the A allele does not predispose to methylation in this context.

Colorectal Adenocarcinoma with an Alternative Serrated Pathway. Full Text Available In a year-old woman, we identified a flat, elevated lesion that was located at the caecum and was composed of 3 different areas areas A, B, and C.

In contrast, area C showed a differentiated-type adenocarcinoma that invaded the submucosa. The patient had a recurrence of cancer 1. Overexpression of TP53 was detected in area C.



Fistula in ano. Except for unusual diseases, fistula in ano originates from infection in the anal crypts of Morgagni, forming an abscess which, when it opens, results in a tract leading to the skin surface. A tentative diagnosis can often be made by a careful history followed by local examination. A history of para-anal abscess followed by intermittent discharge will almost always be elicited. Alternative causes, including especially Crohn's disease, are also described. Operative technique is described, including various methods for finding the internal opening and obscure branching tracts, as well as a number of pitfalls to be avoided. Career and Technology Education Grades


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