The author of more than books and treatises,   his philosophical works include numerous commentaries on Aristotle , for which he was known in the West as The Commentator and Father of rationalism. In he was introduced to the caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf , who was impressed with his knowledge, became his patron and commissioned many of Averroes' commentaries. After Abu Yusuf's death in , he remained in royal favor until he fell into disgrace in He was targeted on various charges—likely for political reasons—and was exiled to nearby Lucena. He returned to royal favor shortly before his death on 11 December
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Access options available:. Edited and translated by Massimo Campanini. New Jersey, Gorgias Press, The introduction, a kind of interpretative essay, attempts to clarify Ibn Rushd's position on the relation between philosophy and religion, the genre to which the Fasl belongs and the format it utilizes, while also offering a fully blown and intriguing outline of the political, theological, cultural, and ideological debates in Andalusia during the Almohadic period.
A large part of the 55 pages of this informative essay is dedicated to what Campanini considers to be Ibn Rushd's view of language as a pluralistic means of expressing the same truth in multiple ways. According to Campanini, Averroes sees truth as standing at the intersection of alternative formulations. Campanini's essay is divided into the following parts: 1. The most substantial part is to be found in the 19 pages of section 4, "Being and Language in the Decisive Treatise ," where Campanini explores Averroes's theory of language and meaning.
His preoccupation with this theme springs from a concern of paramount importance and the real pivot for the Fasl : This is Averroes's famous, or should one say infamous, interpretation of Surah Imran 7, to the effect that it is philosophers rather than theologians who have the ability and must be entrusted with the interpretation of the ambiguous verses mutashabihat of the Scripture.
In combination with Averroes's re-rendering of the Aristotelian classification of arguments into a threefold distinction of demonstrative, dialectical and rhetorical ones, it yields the idea of three classes of people. Significantly, Campanini says that this opens the way to a sociological distinction of people into three classes. Introducing talk of a "sociological" element facilitates Campanini's attempt to drive home his reading of Averroes in general and of the Fasl in particular as engaged in a political project very much in tune with the official ideology of [End Page 1] Andalusia under the Almohades.
After exposing what he sees as the main tenets of the political and theological project of the Almohades, engaging with "Almohadic theology" and exploring the position of Ibn Rushd as an intellectual in the court of Abu Yaqub Yusuf, Campanini concludes that the Decisive Treatise constitutes a "judicial-philosophical justification of Almohad theology" p. This inference is behind Campanini's conviction that the standard translation of the Fasl 's title calls for radical re-evaluation.
In his exposition of "Almohadic theology" and its political ramifications Campanini refers both to Dominique Urvoy and to Josep Puig Montada. In so doing he mentions Urvoy's view of the Fasl as part of a triptych together with the Disclosure of the Methods of Proof as well as Averroes's famous Tahafut.
The term "Almohad Theology" seems to be the axis upon which Urvoy's classification, which Campanini adopts, is articulated. On his part, Campanini brands the Fasl a "borderline work between theology, Law and philosophy" p. Even more importantly, the work is said to constitute a justification of Almohad theology, and more specifically, a judicial-philosophical justification p.
This reference to the judicial element offers a way of relating to Josep Puig Montada's call to "read Averroes's theology politically p. In so doing Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves.
Institutional Login. LOG IN. Philosophy East and West. In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Reviewed by:. ISBN —— Massimo Campanini offers a new translation of Averroes's Fasl Al Maqal from the Arabic original, preceded by a substantial introduction to the text.
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THE DECISIVE TREATISE, DETERMINING THE NATURE OF THE CONNECTION BETWEEN RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY
Abu al-Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Rushd, better known in the Latin West as Averroes, lived during a unique period in Western intellectual history, in which interest in philosophy and theology was waning in the Muslim world and just beginning to flourish in Latin Christendom. Just fifteen years before his birth, the great critic of Islamic philosophy, al-Ghazzali , had died after striking a blow against Muslim Neoplatonic philosophy , particularly against the work of the philosopher Ibn Sina Avicenna. From such bleak circumstances emerged the Spanish-Muslim philosophers, of which the jurist and physician Ibn Rushd came to be regarded as the final and most influential Muslim philosopher, especially to those who inherited the tradition of Muslim philosophy in the West. His influential commentaries and unique interpretations on Aristotle revived Western scholarly interest in ancient Greek philosophy , whose works for the most part had been neglected since the sixth century. He critically examined the alleged tension between philosophy and religion in the Decisive Treatise, and he challenged the anti-philosophical sentiments within the Sunni tradition sparked by al-Ghazzali. Ibn Rushd contended that the claim of many Muslim theologians that philosophers were outside the fold of Islam had no base in scripture. Ibn Rushd strived to demonstrate that without engaging religion critically and philosophically, deeper meanings of the tradition can be lost, ultimately leading to deviant and incorrect understandings of the divine.
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) (1126—1198)
Access options available:. Edited and translated by Massimo Campanini. New Jersey, Gorgias Press, The introduction, a kind of interpretative essay, attempts to clarify Ibn Rushd's position on the relation between philosophy and religion, the genre to which the Fasl belongs and the format it utilizes, while also offering a fully blown and intriguing outline of the political, theological, cultural, and ideological debates in Andalusia during the Almohadic period. A large part of the 55 pages of this informative essay is dedicated to what Campanini considers to be Ibn Rushd's view of language as a pluralistic means of expressing the same truth in multiple ways.