ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA PDF

A reliable protocol has been established for in vitro propagation of Artemisia nilagirica var. A highly proliferating organogenic callus was obtained on Murashige and Skoog MS medium supplemented with 2. Further, highest regeneration frequency An optimal of Ex-vitro plants were normal and were established successfully. Cytological and molecular marker studies showed that regenerated plants showed genetic stability in micro-propagated plants.

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Common names for various species in the genus include mugwort , wormwood , and sagebrush. Artemisia comprises hardy herbaceous plants and shrubs , which are known for the powerful chemical constituents in their essential oils. Artemisia species grow in temperate climates of both hemispheres, usually in dry or semiarid habitats. Notable species include A. The leaves of many species are covered with white hairs.

Most species have strong aromas and bitter tastes from terpenoids and sesquiterpene lactones , which discourage herbivory , and may have had a selective advantage. Some botanists split the genus into several genera, but DNA analysis [5] does not support the maintenance of the genera Crossostephium , Filifolium , Neopallasia , Seriphidium , and Sphaeromeria ; three other segregate genera -- Stilnolepis , Elachanthemum , and Kaschgaria -- are maintained by this evidence.

Occasionally, some of the species are called sages, causing confusion with the Salvia sages in the family Lamiaceae. The aromatic leaves of some species are used for flavouring. Most species have an extremely bitter taste. Artemisia absinthium is used to make the highly potent spirits absinthe. The aperitif vermouth derived from the German word Wermut , "wormwood" is a wine flavored with aromatic herbs, but originally with wormwood.

Artemisia arborescens tree wormwood, or sheeba in Arabic is an aromatic herb indigenous to the Middle East used in tea, usually with mint. A few species are grown as ornamental plants , the fine-textured ones used for clipped bordering.

All grow best in free-draining sandy soil, unfertilized, and in full sun. Artemisia stelleriana is known as Dusty Miller, but several other species bear that name, including Jacobaea maritima syn. Senecio cineraria , Silene coronaria syn. Lychnis coronaria , and Centaurea cineraria. The largest collection of living Artemisia species, subspecies and cultivars is held in the National Collection of Artemisia in Sidmouth , Devon , UK , which holds about taxa.

Artemisinin from Artemisia annua and derivatives are a group of compounds with the most rapid action of all current agents used to treat malaria. It has been shown that whole leaf Artemisia annua increases artemisinin bioavailability, making it more effective. Artemisia cina and other Old World species are the source of the antihelminthic drug santonin. Chinese mugwort, Artemisia argyi , is used in traditional Chinese medicine. In mice, artemisia capillaris Thunberg A. In rats, artemisia austriaca has beneficial effects in reducing the withdrawal syndrome of morphine.

Madagascar began manufacturing and distributing the herbal drink Covid-Organics in April In May, a team of medical researchers from the DRC , experienced with using the plant against malaria, developed medical guidelines for treating COVID with artemisia. Artemisia has been mentioned and used in popular culture for centuries.

A few examples are:. Artemisia species live on every continent except Antarctica, [16] and have become part of many ecosystems around the world as a result. Below is currently a partial view of the importance of Artemisia species in ecosystems around the world.

In North America, several species of Artemisia have become important parts of local environments, with wide adaptability. Artemisia papposa described by S. Sagebrushes like A. Tridentata among others, can often also be found growing near junipers, particularly in the Elkhorn Mountain region, where the Juniper Woodlands form an ecosystem which provide cover for many animal species in both summer and winter months and storms.

Because the habitat should burn only every — years, [20] with sagebrush shrubs living as long as years though potentially typically 88 , this particular combination of Artemisia with other flora form an enduring habitat. Due to their often extensive rhizome systems and other potential characteristics, however, some Artemisia species are often resilient to mowing or pulling, giving some species of Artemisia the ability to easily become invasive if introduced to comfortable, though non-native habitats.

Disturbed habitats, cities and roadsides or parking lots can easily become a field of A. Classification of Artemisia is difficult. Subgeneras Artemisia and Absinthium , are sometimes, but not always, considered the same subgenera. Subgenus Artemisia originally Abrotanum Besser is characterized by a heterogamous flower head with female outer florets and hermaphrodite central florets, and a fertile, glabrous receptacle.

Absinthium DC, though sometimes merged with subgenus Artemisia is characterized by heterogamous flower head with female outer florets and hermaphrodite central florets, and a fertile, hairy receptacle. Generally, previously proposed monotypic and non-monophyletic subgenera have been merged with the subgenus Artemesia due to molecular evidence.

For example, in using ribosomal DNA analysis of their own and a review of molecular data such as ITS sequence analysis of others, S. Garcia and colleagues argued that it was logical to rename several Sphaeromeria and Picrothamnus formerly designated sister genera to Artemisia species as Artemisia , as well as to revert some Sphaeromeria species back to Artemisia , where they had been categorized previously.

The authors concluded that inflorescence morphology is not alone reliable for categorizing the genus or some subgenera, as qualities that previously demarcated them such as homogamous, discoid, ray-less inflorescences seemed to have undergone paralleled evolution up to seven times. Section Tridentatae consists of eleven to thirteen species of coarse shrubs often known colloquially as "sagebrushes", which are very prominent parts of the flora in western North America.

The principal motive for their separation was geographical distribution, chemical makeup, and karyotype. Autopolyploidy among plants is not uncommon, however Tridentatae exhibits a remarkable amount of chromosomal differences at the population level, rather than the taxon level.

This contributes to the difficulty in determining Tridentatae's phylogeny. Traditional lineages within Tridentatae were proposed on the basis of leaf morphology, habitat preference, and the ability to leaf-sprout, among other morphological and behavioral characteristics.

In , Garcia and colleagues proposed enlarging Tridentatae and organized it into the sections Tridentatae, Nebulosae, and Filifoliae based on previous research establishing relationships via ribosomal and nuclear DNA. Intergrading forms are particularly common in recently radiated subgenera such as Tridentatae , given their frequent reversals and convergent evolution. Recent, global reviews of Artemisia using ITS analysis support the hypothesis that Tridentatae has independent origins from Old World Seriphidium [5] These findings were compared with capitula morphology, challenging past assumptions based on floral characteristics.

To better understand the rapid diversification and radiation relative to Old World Artemisia , a closer study of Beriginian or Arctic species may provide missing links. Section Tridentatae includes above species with exception of Artemisia longiloba , which is treated as a subspecies of Artemisia arbuscula. Section Nebulae includes Artemisia californica , Artemisia nesiotica , and Artemisia filifolia.

The Old World species which different classifications put into the genus or subgenus Seriphidium consist of about species native to Europe and temperate Asia, with the largest number of species in Central Asia. Seriphidium Besser was morphologically categorized by a homogamous flower head with all hermaphrodite florets and fertile and glabrous receptacle.

Tridentatae was originally categorized as within Seriphidium due to floral, inflorescence, and leaf morphological similarities, until McArthur et al. North American Seriphidium were later placed into Tridentatae Rydb due to geographical distribution, growth habit, and karyotypic and chemotaxonomic similarities such as presence of certain terpenols. One group which is well-supported by molecular data is subgenus Dracunculus.

It consists of 80 species found in both North America and Eurasia, [4] of which the best-known is perhaps Artemisia dracunculus , the spice tarragon. Dracunculus Besser. Dracunculus is the most supported and resolved subgenus of Artemisia , which includes Artemisia dracunculus L.

Chloroplast and ribosomal DNA sequence analysis in supported monophyly with two clades, one of which includes some North American endemic species as well as most species of Europe and Asia, while the second clade includes just A. This study places Dracunculus as one of the more recent subgenera within Artemisia, situating A. Salisoides more basally on the tree, with North American endemic groups such as the sagebrushes having derived on the other end of a split from a common ancestor with Dracunculus.

Formerly proposed genera Mausolea , Neopallasia and Turaniphytum are now argued to be within the subgenus Dracunculus due to ribosomal and chloroplast DNA evidence, with further species resolved as sister groups to Dracunculus due to phytochemical relationships. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Genus of flowering plants in the daisy family Asteraceae. Artemisia abrotanum L. Artemisia arborescens — tree wormwood Artemisia arbuscula Nutt.

Artemisia arenicola Krasch. Artemisia armeniaca Lam. Artemisia aschurbajewii C. Aro Artemisia australis Less. Artemisia avarica Minat. Artemisia badhysi Krasch. Artemisia baldshuanica Krasch. Artemisia bargusinensis Spreng. Artemisia bejdemaniae Leonova Artemisia biennis Willd. Gray — Bigelow sage, Bigelow sagebrush Artemisia borealis Pall. Artemisia borotalensis Poljakov Artemisia bottnica Lundstr. Artemisia caespitosa Ledeb. Artemisia californica Less.

Artemisia campestris L. Artemisia cana Pursh — silver sagebrush Artemisia canadensis Michx. Artemisia caucasica Willd. Artemisia chamaemelifolia Vill. Artemisia cina O. Schmidt — santonica, Levant wormseed Artemisia ciniformis Krasch.

Artemisia cuspidata Krasch. Artemisia czukavinae Filatova Artemisia daghestanica Krasch. Artemisia depauperata Krasch. Artemisia deserti Krasch. Artemisia desertorum Spreng.

Artemisia diffusa Krasch. Artemisia douglasiana Bess.

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Common names for various species in the genus include mugwort , wormwood , and sagebrush. Artemisia comprises hardy herbaceous plants and shrubs , which are known for the powerful chemical constituents in their essential oils. Artemisia species grow in temperate climates of both hemispheres, usually in dry or semiarid habitats. Notable species include A. The leaves of many species are covered with white hairs.

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Artemisia vulgaris common mugwort [2] is one of several species in the genus Artemisia commonly known as mugwort , although Artemisia vulgaris is the species most often called mugwort. This species is also occasionally known as riverside wormwood , [3] felon herb , chrysanthemum weed , wild wormwood , old Uncle Henry , sailor's tobacco , naughty man , old man or St. John's plant not to be confused with St John's wort. Artemisia vulgaris is native to temperate Europe , Asia , northern Africa and Alaska and is naturalized in North America , [5] where some consider it an invasive weed.

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