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Litosseliti, Lia. R Her research focus is language in the workplace. She has published work on meeting talk, workplace written discourse and foreign language use and language policy in the corporate workplace.
Her current work includes a comparative analysis of discourse in business meetings. Paul Baker was awarded a Ph. His research areas include corpus linguistics, critical discourse analysis and language, gender and sexuality. He is the commissioning editor for the journal Corpora. He has taught corpus linguistics and research methods in corpus linguistics in Lancaster and Hong Kong. She gained her Ph. Her research inter- ests are in the fields of language and gender, discourse analysis, classroom language, leader- ship language, identity and feminist post-structuralism.
She recently won an ESRC grant to conduct research into gender and the language of business leadership. His research is focused on representation and communication in educational contexts.
In other projects he studied classroom interaction, online interaction and policy papers using a range of different social semiotic and linguistic-ethnographic research methods. Since she has been researching complementary schools with the support of two ESRC grants. She is associate editor of the journal Anthropology and Edu- cational Quarterly. Hav- ing completed both a B. Julio C. He is a Lecturer at the Centre for English Language Education, University of Nottingham, where he teaches academic literacies to graduate and postgraduate students.
His main teaching and research interests are the critical analysis of dis- course, academic literacies, research methodologies and language in the workplace. His work has been published in several edited collections and international journals. He has conducted sociolinguistic research on language, gender and sexuality in the United States and Israel, among other topics, for the past eight years. He regularly presents his work at such academic venues as the New Ways of Analyzing Variation conference and the meetings of the Linguistics Society of America, the American Anthropological Association and the International Gender and Language Association.
His work has also been published in a number of academic journals and edited volumes. Her research interests are in the areas of gender and language, discourse analysis, and research methodologies. Her research focuses on represen- tation, technology and pedagogy. Sebastian M. He holds a D. My aim in putting together this particular book, however, is to strike an impor- tant balance: while aiming to retain and illuminate some of the complexities of research inquiry within linguistics, it tries to do so in an accessible, uncom- plicated way.
The ten chapters presented here guide readers through the key issues, principles, and contributions of core methods in linguistic research. The ideas presented by these authors are currently spread in the literature across different journals and books, and therefore this collection is aimed as an essen- tial up-to-date one-stop resource for researchers and graduate students. The newcomer to the field will appreciate the clear introductions to key concepts, a plethora of illustrative examples, and carefully drawn links between theory and practice.
The experienced researcher and teacher of linguistics will find authoritative and critical engagement with current debates in this diverse field especially in the later chapters. Both types of readers will hopefully find the book a useful resource for the supervision of research projects and theses. The book does not purposefully examine the different stages of project design, data collection and data analysis in linguistics. This is not only because the different chapters are designed to appeal to both experienced and new researchers, but also because there are already excellent guides doing precisely this.
However, it will be evident for the reader that issues of design, collection and analysis of data are central to any discussion of methods, and are therefore in the foreground in most of the chapters in this collection and especially in the earlier chapters. This division is followed here for easy reference purposes; it will be clear to readers not only that some methods cannot be labelled as simply quantitative or qualitative, but also that there are good reasons why they should not be and a number of contributors in this volume engage with these debates.
The larger number of chapters under qualitative methods reflects the considerable preva- lence and momentum of such methods currently in the field. Each chapter begins with a chapter outline, and then: z introduces basic concepts and overviews key issues z features illustrative examples from recent linguistic research studies z outlines the contribution a method makes to the field, and where appropriate, its potential for combination with other methods z makes suggestions for further reading in that particular area.
Research methods are inextricably linked with the research questions being asked, as well as with the broader research climate in which they are employed. In this light, the first two chapters Part I examine some basic principles behind research questions and behind common assumptions about quantita- tive and qualitative methods. These chapters will be of interest particularly to the newcomer to the field, but will also act as reminders for the more experi- enced linguists, who are arguably more in danger of becoming entrenched in the research questions and types of methodologies they pursue.
Chapter 1, by Jane Sunderland, looks at research questions: why we need them, where they come from, how they can be categorized and implemented, and what implications they may have for linguistic data and analysis.
This chapter offers plenty of examples of types and groupings of research questions from previous sociolinguistic studies. Introduction 3 Jo Angouri, in Chapter 2, critically examines the issue of the combination or integration of quantitative and qualitative methods in linguistic research.
The chapter includes a discussion of triangulation and mixed methods, and uses research on workplace discourse to illustrate some of the benefits and challenges of combining paradigms. The next three chapters Part II deal with quantitative and corpus research methods in linguistics. They are intended as detailed overviews of basic quan- titative and corpus research designs, with an emphasis on the practical steps needed for researchers to understand and implement such designs.
Chapter 3, by Sebastian M. Rasinger, introduces the most common princi- ples in quantitative research — forming a hypothesis, and considering the quantifiability, reliability, and validity of data — and the most frequently used quantitative designs in linguistics.
It then focuses on the use of questionnaires in quantitative research, offering many practical ideas on how to design, phrase and code questionnaires. Chapter 4, by Erez Levon, complements the previous chapter by focusing on the nuts and bolts of the quantitative analysis of language, and particularly on how to construct and test hypotheses for such analysis.
The chapter then examines in some detail two of the most common statistical tests used in linguistics: chi-square tests and t-tests. Finally, the author discusses the inter- pretation of quantitative results, and the issue of combining quantitative and qualitative methods in linguistic research. Paul Baker then introduces corpus linguistics in Chapter 5.
The chapter examines such issues as the theoretical principles surrounding corpus linguis- tics techniques, building and annotating a corpus, different types of corpora, and different kinds of research questions that may be addressed through cor- pus linguistics.
Examples of applications of corpora are also given from previ- ous work in stylistics, discourse analysis, forensic linguistics and language teaching. The chapter finally demonstrates corpus analysis, providing exam- ples of word frequencies, keywords, collocates and concordances. The five chapters Part III that follow are concerned with qualitative methods in linguistics, representing a selection of current major methods: discourse-analytic approaches, linguistic ethnography, interviews and focus groups, multimodal analysis, and narrative analysis.
While some of these can be seen as more general approaches and some as more specific data crea- tion methods, in practice there is considerable overlap between the two, depending on the study.
In addition, all chapters in this part of the book engage, to varying degrees, with recent debates about the relationship between the micro and macro levels of linguistic inquiry. In Chapter 6, Judith Baxter reviews four discourse-analytic approaches to text and talk of particular value for current research in linguistics: Conversa- tion Analysis, Discourse Analysis, Critical Discourse Analysis and Feminist Post-structuralist Discourse Analysis.
The chapter outlines the background, basic principles, features and contributions of each approach. It also problema- tizes the relationship between the micro and macro levels of analysis, as this is conceptualized in each approach.
Chapter 7, by Angela Creese, describes linguistic ethnography and its methodological and analytical contribution to the study of language. It covers such issues as interdisciplinarity and theoretical diversity, the benefits of com- bining different types of data, and the role of fieldnotes and team ethnography in linguistic ethnographic accounts. It also illustrates how linguistic ethnogra- phy can be combined with other methods to produce rich data.
In Chapter 8, Nigel Edley and Lia Litosseliti critically examine the use of interviews and focus groups within social science and linguistics research. Rather, they emphasize the role of interviews and focus groups as collaborative or interactional events that are context-specific and shaped as much by the interviewer as by those being interviewed. The chapter ends with a critical review of the primary strengths and weaknesses of these methods.
Chapter 9, by Jeff Bezemer and Carey Jewitt, deals with multimodal analy- sis and its relevance for the study of language and communication. It explores the theoretical and methodological implications of the different modes that people use to make meaning beyond language, such as speech, gesture, gaze, image and writing. The authors first discuss the role of multimodality in social linguistic research. They then focus on a social semiotic approach to multi- modality, which they illustrate with examples from classroom interaction and textbooks.
The chapter ends with a discussion of the potentials and constraints of multimodal analysis. Finally, in Chapter 10, Julio C. Gimenez introduces the key elements of traditional and new emerging sociolinguistic approaches to the analysis of narratives.
I would like to thank the authors in this volume for their constructive discussions during the different writing, reviewing and editing stages of this book. I truly hope this book will encourage readers to reflect on the relation- ships between different research paradigms. I also hope it will encourage them to explore new possibilities for interaction and cross-fertilization among them.
References Coupland, N. Houndmills: Macmillan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wray, A. London: Hodder Arnold. Starting with why we need research questions as opposed to topics or even hypotheses , I explore where they might come from, and propose different types of research questions.
Research questions of course need to be operationalized, and the chapter explores the implications of different types of research questions for data, data collection and analysis. Equally importantly, research questions need to be explicitly docu- mented, in terms inter alia of their origin, rationale and implementation, and the chapter looks at how and where this might be done. Research questions are discussed throughout with a specific eye on linguistic studies, exemplified using linguistic research, and there is a focus on linguistic data and analysis.
Mason, 20 1.
Research Methods in Linguistics
Qty :. Research Methods in Linguistics guides the reader through the key issues, principles, and contributions of core methods in linguistic research. It is an essential resource for researchers and graduate students looking for clear introductions to key concepts, accessible discussions of theory and practice through illustrative examples, and critical engagement with current debates. Topics covered include developing research questions; combining methods; quantitative research designs including questionnaires, chi-square tests and t-tests ; corpus analysis; qualitative research methods interview methods, discourse analytic approaches, multimodal analysis. Expanded throughout, this second edition also features: - New chapters on ethics in linguistic research; transcription; and case study research - Further reading, online resources, discussion questions and a glossary of key terms for each chapter Providing in-depth introductions to key concepts, a wealth of examples from recent linguistic research and suggestions for further exploration and discussion in each area, this book will be an invaluable resource for anyone working with linguistic data. Quantitative, Qualitative, Mixed, or Holistic research? Duff, University of British Columbia, Canada.
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