Photo Credit: Theodore Scott. Through their growth, the Tiwanaku were able to extend their culture and political prowess into surrounding regions, spreading from northern Argentina and Chile through Bolivia to the south of Peru, making them the most important regional power in the southern Andes. Photo Credit: Leonora Enking. La Paz Life Quick Tip:. As voted the best way to travel around Bolivia and Peru, we highly recommend choosing Bolivia Hop as your means of transport.
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The city of Tiwanaku, capital of a powerful pre-Hispanic empire that dominated a large area of the southern Andes and beyond, reached its apogee between and AD. Its monumental remains testify to the cultural and political significance of this civilisation, which is distinct from any of the other pre-Hispanic empires of the Americas.
De stad Tiwanaku — hoofdstad van een krachtig pre-Spaans rijk — domineerde een groot deel van de zuidelijke Andes en verder. In de 8e eeuw na Christus ging het Tiwanaku rijk z'n meest invloedrijke fase in. In de uitgestrekte regio werden veel dochtersteden of kolonies opgericht. De belangrijkste daarvan was Wari in Peru dat zich later tegen Tiwanku keerde. De politieke dominantie van Tiwanaku begon af te nemen in de 11e eeuw en het rijk stortte de eerste helft van de 12e eeuw in.
De monumentale overblijfselen getuigen van de culturele en politieke betekenis van deze beschaving, die zich onderscheidt van andere pre-Spaanse rijken van Amerika. Source: unesco. Most of the ancient city, which was largely built from adobe, has been overlaid by the modern town. However, the monumental stone buildings of the ceremonial centre survive in the protected archaeological zones. Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture began as a small settlement which later flourished into a planned city between A.
The maximum expression of this culture is reflected in the civic - ceremonial organized spatially with a centre oriented toward to the cardinal points, constructed with impressive ashlars stones carved accurately and equipped with a complex system of underground drainage that was controlling the flow of rain waters. In addition, the area politician - administrative officer is represented by structures as the Palace of Putuni and Kantatallita.
This architectural complex reflects the complex political structure of the period and its strong religious nature. The most imposing monument at Tiwanaku is the Pyramid of Akapana.
It is a pyramid originally with seven superimposed platforms with stone retaining walls rising to a height of over 18m. Only the lowest of these and part of one of the intermediate walls survive intact. Investigations have shown that it was originally clad in sandstone and andisite and surmounted by a temple.
It is surrounded by very well-preserved drainage canals. The walls of the small semi-subterranean temple Templete are made up of 48 pillars in red sandstone. There are many carved stone heads set into the walls, doubtless symbolizing an earlier practice of exposing the severed heads of defeated enemies in the temple.
To the north of the Akapana is the Kalasasaya, a large rectangular open temple, believed to have been used as an observatory. It is entered by a flight of seven steps in the centre of the eastern wall. The interior contains two carved monoliths and the monumental Gate of the Sun, one of the most important specimens of the art of Tiwanaku.
It was made from a single slab of andesite cut to form a large doorway with niches Hornacinas on either side. Above the doorway is an elaborate bas-relief frieze depicting a central deity, standing on a stepped platform, wearing an elaborate head-dress, and holding a staff in each hand. The deity is flanked by rows of anthropomorphic birds and along the bottom of the panel there is a series of human faces. The ensemble has been interpreted as an agricultural calendar. The settlers of this city perfected the technology for carving and polishing different stone materials for the construction, which, together with architectural technology, enriched the monumental spaces.
The economic base of this city is evidenced through the almost The artificial terraces constitute an important contribution to agriculture and made possible a sustained form of farming and consequently the cultural evolution of the Tiwanaku Empire.
These innovations were subsequently taken up by succeeding civilizations and were extended as far as Cuzco. The social dynamics of this population of the highland plateau were sustained in strong religious components that are expressed in a diverse iconography of stylized of zoomorphic and anthropomorphous images.
Many towns and colonies were set up in the vast region under Tiwanaku rule. The political dominance of Tiwanaku began to decline in the 11th century, and its empire collapsed in the first half of the 12th century.
Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture was the capital of a powerful empire that lasted several centuries and it was characterized by the use of new technologies and materials for the architecture, pottery, textiles, metals, and basket-making. The politics and ideology had a religious character and it incorporated to the sphere of influence to different ethnic groups that lived in different regions.
This multiethnic character takes form of the stylistic and iconographic diversity of his archaeological materials. The monumental buildings of his administrative and religious centre are a witness of the economic and political force of the cardinal city and of his empire. Criterion iii : The ruins of Tiwanaku bear striking witness to the power of the empire that played a leading role in the development of the Andean prehispanic civilization.
Criterion iv : The buildings of Tiwanaku are exceptional examples of the ceremonial and public architecture and art of one of the most important manifestations of the civilizations of the Andean region.
All the attributes to convey the Outstanding Universal Value of the property are located within its boundaries. The archaeological remains have maintained to a certain extent their physical integrity although systematic conservation and maintenance measures will be required to ensure their physical stability and the protection against the adverse effect of climatic conditions in the long term.
Similarly, effective enforcement of regulatory measures for the protection of the large areas of the ancient urban complex, that exist beneath the modern village of Tiwanaku and farmhouses, is crucial for maintaining the integrity of these remains. As with most archaeological sites, Tiwanaku preserves a very high degree of authenticity.
However, a conservation plan with precise guidelines for interventions, which take into consideration the original form and design, as well as the materials used for construction, will need to be implemented to ensure that the conditions of authenticity continue to be met. The Bolivian State has established regulations at the national, departmental and local government levels for the conservation, protection and safeguarding of the property.
The limits for the protection and safeguard of the property were established by means of the D. The first two areas Kalasasaya, with To guarantee the integrity and the authenticity of the areas declared property of the Bolivian State, there is delimited a protection zone that consists of a perimeter band, a meters wide, surrounding the three archaeological areas before indicated as a single polygonal one. There is also a programme for the acquisition of other areas for of the Bolivian State.
In addition, planning tools exist through the main plan of Tiwanaku and a main plan of conservation. The main plan will entail the implementation of the following programmes: archaeological investigations, conservation and restoration, investigation in anthropology, infrastructure in general, dissemination and communication and administration of the site. This will also complement the main conservation plan that will address natural and human factors that affect the site Tiwanaku.
About us www. Help preserve sites now! Join the , Members. Please note that given the exceptional circumstances related to the Coronavirus COVID pandemic, regular mail sent to the World Heritage Centre in Paris cannot be processed on a normal basis for the moment. Thank you for your understanding. Search Advanced. By Properties. Cultural Criteria: i ii iii iv v vi Natural Criteria: vii viii ix x.
Category All Cultural Natural Mixed. All With videos With photo gallery. Country Region Year Name of the property. Without With. Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture The city of Tiwanaku, capital of a powerful pre-Hispanic empire that dominated a large area of the southern Andes and beyond, reached its apogee between and AD. Tiwanaku: spiritueel en politiek centrum van de Tiwanaku cultuur De stad Tiwanaku — hoofdstad van een krachtig pre-Spaans rijk — domineerde een groot deel van de zuidelijke Andes en verder.
Integrity All the attributes to convey the Outstanding Universal Value of the property are located within its boundaries. Authenticity As with most archaeological sites, Tiwanaku preserves a very high degree of authenticity.
Protection and management requirements The Bolivian State has established regulations at the national, departmental and local government levels for the conservation, protection and safeguarding of the property. Media Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Bolivia Plurinational State of.
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The city of Tiwanaku, capital of a powerful pre-Hispanic empire that dominated a large area of the southern Andes and beyond, reached its apogee between and AD. Its monumental remains testify to the cultural and political significance of this civilisation, which is distinct from any of the other pre-Hispanic empires of the Americas. De stad Tiwanaku — hoofdstad van een krachtig pre-Spaans rijk — domineerde een groot deel van de zuidelijke Andes en verder. In de 8e eeuw na Christus ging het Tiwanaku rijk z'n meest invloedrijke fase in. In de uitgestrekte regio werden veel dochtersteden of kolonies opgericht.
Tiwanaku, La Paz
We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. The ruins of Tiwanaku A. One building in particular, known as the Pumapunku, was described by Spanish conquistadors and travelers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as a wondrous, though unfinished, building with gateways and windows carved from single blocks. Unparalleled in the pre-Colombian New World, the craftsmanship of this masonry has long been considered the architectural apogee of Andean pre-Colombian lithic technology. Over the last century and a half, several different scholars have carefully measured the shattered architecture and even managed to join several fragments to form complete pieces. This research revisited these historic field notes with a view to transforming this century and a half of documentation into solid 3D form.
Reconstructing ancient architecture at Tiwanaku, Bolivia: the potential and promise of 3D printing
Surface remains currently cover around 4 square kilometers and include decorated ceramics, monumental structures, and megalithic blocks. The site's population probably peaked around AD with 10, to 20, people. Some have hypothesized that Tiwanaku's modern name is related to the Aymara term taypiqala , meaning "stone in the center", alluding to the belief that it lay at the center of the world. The age of the site has been significantly refined over the last century. From to , Arthur Posnansky maintained that the site was 11,—17, years old   based on comparisons to geological eras and archaeoastronomy. This date is still seen in some publications and museums in Bolivia.
Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture