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Copyright by World New Music Magazine, the authors and translators. All rights reserved. Both anniversaries are closely connected with the country in which everything started — Austria. Thus, since each Czech and Slovak section has been writing its own history Have a pleasant and enriching read Members Sections Full associate members Allied associate members Affiliated associate members Honorary members. It forms a reference point as the place of our founding as a Society, and as time passes, we can refer back to these roots and reflect on how we have developed since then.
On the 90th anniversary of the first ISCM Festival in Salzburg in , it is most appropriate that we return to this place, in a festival hosted by two of the group of founding members of ISCM — Austria, and Slovakia. This is a foreword to the following articles which are the basis for the symposium. In , new selection criteria were adopted, which meant that the jury is obliged to select at least one piece from each submitting country, regardless of whether the jury finds the piece to be of good quality either aesthetically or technically.
Thus in recent years, discussions on aesthetic issues and potential value criteria were internally blocked, as were issues on technical craftsmanship, or the aims of communication of composition studies in different countries and cultures. However, at the World Music Days , a gradual awareness of these issues was observed. The aim of the symposium of the World Music Days is not simply to discuss these issues, but primarily to create the basis for an informed discussion.
In times of increasing globalisation, such questions are not only of relevance for the Society internally, but are also relevant for the contemporary art music-interested public — be they scholars, journalists, or music lovers.
Questions of interculturality or of country-specific composition are, of course, not posed here for the first time. Over the past years symposiums on similar themes have repeatedly taken place. Also in recent. Additional aims within the framework of the ISCM: Raising awareness and clarification of basic issues within the ISCM, including the development of descriptive and value criteria in an intercultural context.
The symposium also serves as a preparation for substantive reflection and exchange of ideas between members of the music scene throughout the world. This will be the starting point for the whole symposium, as members of its audience include ISCM representatives from many parts of the world.
August Nina Polaschegg studied musicology, sociology and philosophy in Giessen and Hamburg where she also received her doctorate. Her research focuses on music sociology, contemporary compositions, improvised and electronic music, as well as contemporary jazz.
She is a musicologist, music publicist, and double bass player living in Vienna, and also works for diverse broadcasting corporations in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, as well as writing for various specialised magazines. She was teaching at the music conservatories and universities in Hamburg and Klagenfurt. At the ISCM-symposium, the focus is deliberately set on essential issues, which introduced by keynote lectures and other presentations, will provide the basis for discussion.
By way of example, various musical cultures will be comprehensively compared function, aesthetics, image, education, educational goals of contemporary music, and also post -colonial influences, etc. On such a basis, questions can be asked which at first appear provocative, but ultimately specifically stimulate key debate issues. Implied European centrism of European promoters and writers.
The assumption that Western cultural thinking is generally incompatible with art forms from other cultures.
Anybody wanting to make art finds himself in an institutionalised value system. If he has a serious approach, he believes or at least states that his art was not just made for the producer, i. Instead he will say that devoting attention, money, and brainpower to this work might also benefit other people, who, therefore, should pay attention to it.
However, if nothing similar was either believed or stated, there would be no reason to exhibit, buy, read or perform the work of art. The classical enthusiast whose eyes fill with tears whilst watching The Magic Flute, will not say: It would have moved him deeply, but if others, his children, culture and education politicians, would see things differently and hold The Magic Flute to be obsolete, because today pop music is responsible for these needs, it does not matter to him.
II Traditional art is believed to possess criteria which are generally binding, in other words criteria whose original fulfilment legitimises the claim that they should please anyone — or even must please, when this anyone wants to be considered an educated, good man. In traditional art one central concept was that of beauty. This might be due to biological factors inherent in the human species.
Depending on the type of art concerned, art was believed to capable of determining partial terms. These were based on the notion of beauty.
Concrete examples for such terms are: the truth of nature, the aptness of representation and the represented, and varietas. Until the 18th century, this latter notion not only designated variety and change, but also anything which should be bound by a unifying conceptually seizable principle.
Proportion and symmetry were other important criteria, which in music were often associated with harmony, rhythm, a leading voice, repetition and contrast 2 Winfried Menninghaus, Wozu Kunst? He will tell us that his feelings had so much to do with the fact of his hearing a great work of art, while denying the fact that he had just happened to be in a certain elevated mood, perhaps because he had had an increase in salary or for some similar reason.
Only somebody who exposes his own emotional reactions to art to the arguments of others is empowered to implement the feeling for how things should be. Conversely, no-one in the field of art can and should deem something worthwhile to which he does not respond, by which he is not fascinated, excited, and intensely moved.
Arguments can initially be abstract; but if they are of aesthetic relevance, they must finally readjust the imagination and thereby transform feelings: We do not want our children to appreciate Beethoven because it is well received in society, but because with his music they can gain life-enhancing experience, which only art in this case music is able to offer. However, Edmund Burke, recognised that symmetry and proportion are also found in ugly objects. Insights on the need for deviations have been passed on in rhetoric since antiquity.
The 18th century eliminated this canon for good. Meininghaus, Wozu Kunst? Graz —Vienna , Chap. II 5 The educational encyclopaedic impulse of the 18th century was fully developed into the 19th century, the actual era of globalisation, cf. Eine Geschichte des Also in the 19th century, the institutionalisation of museums was completed.
Osterhammel, Die Verwandlung der Welt, p. In the sphere of religion, ideas of tolerance, the secularisation of the state and deism were promoted.
However, in the field of art neither a convincing amount of progress was made nor was there a universal model. Therefore, when we today say that there can be no more universal and binding aims and means of art, but only an equally available quantity of highly diverse idioms and ideals of the arts, this is not an invention of the so-called postmodern age.
Instead, it is the expression of an experience which already stood at the beginning of aesthetic modernity. We only find ourselves temporarily, that is at the end of this development. Nowadays we do not have a more manageable or binding definition of what art is, can or must be than we ever had. Yet, we all believe we know it intuitively.
We are all able to give ad hoc examples of what is undoubtedly art. We have all had emphatic. The loss of a universal binding force as a result of the proliferation of ideals and criteria was opposed by historico-philosophically and metaphysically inspired art religion. The spokesmen of this opposition were of course philosophers and writers. Goethe and Schiller devoted much energy to it. There, all ways and modes of speaking, high and low, old and new, perhaps even music and painting, were supposed to be overridden.
From this time on, the boundary between art and non-art became an increasingly important point in the debate. However, the loss of a binding force in the arts as a consequence of their proliferation and of a levelling of all criteria and definitions has also provoked opposing forces.
IV 9 For details see S. Against the backdrop of the aforesaid, I therefore suggest that aesthetic modernity must neither be regarded as a historical fact, phenomenon or era nor as a redefinition of the aims and means of art, but ultimately as a change of the operative conditions of the receptive and productive development of artistic values.
This may sound abstract, but the logic behind it is quite straightforward: In developed modernism, it is equally legitimate to strive to implement both traditional and modernist modes of speech and value characteristics, for something must always be done with perceptibility, so this particular quality in its individual framework can today again produce genuine artistic value.
It is only in this way that it becomes comprehensible in a new way. Should art not rather be true, provocative, or confusing? This manner of speaking shows that in our everyday life we doubt value criteria of the first order and look to justify them. In our everyday dealings with art we also often use phrases which. IV Universal history teaches us that in the 19th-century globalisation, pushed by the militarily, technically, scientifically, and economically superior European nations, spread rapidly in almost all fields, including the field of culture.
Much of the world saw this and approved of it; the new age was presented for all in the world exhibitions. However, in many regions of the world, European achievements were only unwillingly accepted.
At the same time, they were changed and transplanted in the context of local traditions. Even in the case of genuine European fields of study such as sociology, nations such as Japan and China developed their own interpretations early on.
In China, libraries are institutions with a very long history, with only the genuinely European idea of making them accessible to the public being added later on as an innovation. Notwithstanding, the ethnological museums, which outside Europe were usually institutionalised only after the end of colonialism, were guided by pre-colonial humanistic impulses. In the 19th century, it was almost universally diffused, existing sometimes not only in China largely independently of European role models.
Aesthetic modernity in the sense I have suggested, could come into being only in central Europe. Nowhere else did historicism. If such a picture of the system of aesthetic modernity were the case, one can and must deduce tangible maxims from it for dealing with non-European art tradition. In fact, this is everyday experience. However, the gongs were struck in a more sophisticated way in Japanese monasteries already centuries ago! No, for him not to know this, is per se a shortcoming.
It is possible that his work is inherently consistent without the knowledge of Japanese temple gongs. Involuntarily, we hear the sounds of all times and milieus. The same is true of all other parameters, such as time, duration, consonance, mass, and expression. It is true that we can perceive only tiny bits of everything which has been produced.
However, this need not disturb us: Most of what we know about culture, knowledge and belief systems we only know by way of few examples — the Zen culture of Japan perhaps from some watercolour paintings, pottery, shakuhachi music, or monastery gardens.
We trust that what members of every respective culture hold to be significant and exemplary is appropriately reflected in their own criteria. In this sense, the modern system of art as it has emanated from Europe, wants to be serious about globalisation.
LADISLAV DANIEL Flauto Dolce - škola hry na sopránovou zobcovou flétnu 2. díl - Ladislav Daniel