The article covers the problems of styles of coping with the stress of students during adolescence. Studies have shown that there are no significant differences in the styles of coping with stress between boys and girls, when we take into account the frequency of taking active actions and avoidance behaviours. Girls, however, were more often focused on emotions than boys. On the other hand, students struggling with family problems reveal greater difficulties in coping with stress, in comparison with people experiencing tension due to school requirements.
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This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support.
Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: Data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. The data file is available from the Open Science Framework database osf.
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Neck pain is commonly reported. It tends to be chronic and results in prolonged disability [ 1 — 3 ]. It is estimated that chronic neck pain, with various etiologies, affects between 4. As with any kind of chronic pain, it affects a wide range of areas of human life, and as such it poses a serious challenge to socio-economic systems [ 2 , 3 ]. We explored several aspects of the psychological functioning of patients suffering from neck pain in this study.
Specifically, we analyzed the association of pain intensity and disability, as dependent variables, with coping with stress and family functioning, as independent variables or predictors.
We also analyzed the moderating effect of age on these associations. Research on the association of psychological factors with neck pain and neck disability is relatively common. To date, this research has established that self-rated disability is positively related to depression [ 4 ], pain catastrophising [ 5 — 7 ], strategies of coping with pain [ 7 ], causal beliefs [ 5 ], fear of movement [ 6 , 8 , 9 ], and cervical non-organic signs [ 9 ] in whiplash sufferers.
In samples of patients with mixed neck-pain whiplash and non-whiplash neck problems , self-rated disability has been found to be correlated positively with depression, somatization [ 10 ], and the Mental Component Summary of the SF [ 11 ].
Self-rated disability has been found to be strongly associated with fear of movement among pain patients who did not sufferer whiplash [ 12 ].
The importance of chronic pain has been strongly emphasized in the context of family functioning [ 13 — 16 ]. It has been noted, among other things, that pain reduces full time employment and increases the amount of time spent doing housekeeping and household maintenance [ 17 ].
Thomas et al. On the other hand, serious conflicts in the family may aggravate chronic pain [ 19 ]. Family communication becomes centered on illness; the social life of family members suffer; pain becomes the factor that binds the family together, etc. In the present research, we were interested mainly in how family functioning affects pain and disability. Therefore, family functioning was the independent variable, or predictor, in our analyses, and neck pain and pain-related disability were the dependent variables.
It should also be noted that, to our knowledge, there have been no studies on the family dynamics of patients with chronic neck pain. We hypothesized that better family functioning would result in less pain and disability.
This could occur for quite simple reasons. For example, the members of the family may help patients with everyday activities, thus, enabling them to rest and concentrate more on treatment.
Also, it is possible that a supportive family may encourage patients to start treatment. Coping style would seem to be an obvious predictor of pain: the better and the more adaptive the coping style, the less the pain should be. People struggling with prolonged pain naturally have to develop strategies to cope with it [ 7 ]. However, in light of the research literature, the picture is not that clear. Some research [ 20 ] has found little evidence that either the duration or intensity of pain were strongly related to general coping styles.
Avoidance-oriented coping, as measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations [ 21 ], has been found to be negatively correlated with pain intensity among patients visiting a pain clinic, which may mean that avoidance may help to reduce pain. In contrast, Hart et al. Some authors [ 23 , 24 ] have suggested that, among general pain patients, factors related to acceptance may be more important for pain and disability than factors that are related to coping.
However, Esteve et al. In sum, it seems that the effect of coping strategies on pain and disability vary. Despite the inconsistencies in the existing results, we believe that the hypothesis that there is a negative relationship between the quality of coping styles and pain and disability is tenable.
In addition, we investigated whether age acted as a moderating variable. We were unable to locate any study that examined our particular question: whether age moderates the effect of family functioning and coping styles on neck pain and neck disability. There is substantial research on the association of age with neck pain and the preponderance of these studies indicate that age is connected with both the prevalence and incidence of neck pain [ 1 — 3 ].
Also, there are insightful analyses that relate age to coping with illness. For example, after an extensive analysis of the research literature, Berg and Upchurch [ 26 ] presented a developmental-contextual model, which suggested that the way patients and their spouses cope with an illness varies across the lifespan. However, we have found no studies on the moderating effect of age on the relationship of family functioning with coping and pain and disability. Despite the lack of relevant research, we believe the hypothesis that age moderates the association of family functioning and coping styles on pain is plausible.
Moderation, in this context, means that family variables and coping styles influence pain and disability differently in people of different ages. It is possible that the relationship between the quality of family life and experienced pain is not as strong among younger people as it is among elderly people. This could be because young people may have a wider range of possible resources both individual and social at their disposal, and, thus, they may not be so dependent on family support.
In contrast, older people may be more dependent on their spouse or adult children ; thus, there may be a stronger relationship between their quality of family life and pain and disability. We also were unable to find research on the relationship between coping styles and pain in which age was studied as a moderator.
Nevertheless, a similar hypothesis may be tenable as in the case of family functioning: younger people may have sufficient available resources that may make them less dependent on the quality of their coping styles.
Elderly people, on the other hand, may have fewer available resources, which makes them more dependent on the quality of their coping styles. We restricted the sample to women in this study. This was done to avoid complications stemming from the fact that the gender roles of women and men differ in the family [ 27 ], and the relationships under study may also differ by gender.
These potential gender differences would require appropriate interaction analyses that included gender as a moderator. This would require a larger sample size, which was not possible in the present research because of constraints resulting from the fact that the participants were recruited while undergoing therapy. A factor that favoured limiting the sample to females is that women seem to be more vulnerable to neck pain, and less likely to have complete relief from pain and disability than men are [ 1 — 3 ].
The study was conducted in — in an outpatient clinic in Cracow, Poland. This study was part of a larger study on the psychometric properties of the Polish NDI [ 28 ]. Written consent was provided by all the participants. The exclusion criteria were: having symptoms in the upper extremities, neurologic deficits, severe coexisting neurological, rheumatic, vascular disease, malignancies, advanced diabetes, cardiac and kidney failure, mental disorders, being pregnant, and unsystematic participation in the treatment program.
The Neck Disability Index [ 28 , 29 ] is a self-administered questionnaire that includes 10 items on pain and pain-related limitations in daily activities. The total score on the NDI was expressed as a score out of 50 in the present study. It was. Guzy et al. It includes three dimensions of coping styles: Task Oriented focusing on solving problems , Emotion Oriented emotional reactions , and Avoidance Oriented, which includes two subscales: Involvement in Other Tasks and Social Contacts.
Strelau et al. The validity of CISS was reported to be satisfactory. The higher the scores, the worse the functioning of the family is in a given area. The Family Questionnaire also includes two additional control scales measuring Social Expectations and Defence, in which the higher the scores, the better functioning is.
Beauvale et al. The validity of the FAM was satisfactory. Most of the subscales of the FAM in the present study showed satisfactory reliability, ranging from. All the data analyzed in this article were obtained from the baseline measurements. Patients were examined by a medical doctor upon entering the study. The diagnosis was based on an interview, a physical examination, and imaging tests. The study was conducted in collaboration with psychologists, and the measurements were performed by experienced physiotherapists who were blinded to the study.
Zero-order and partial correlations controlling for age and a combination of hierarchical and stepwise regression models were performed, in which age was entered in the first model, and the remaining predictors related to family functioning and coping styles were entered into the subsequent models using the stepwise method to analyze moderation effects.
In sum, eighty-eight women took part in the study. Their mean age was The mean of the NDI was According to the criteria suggested by Vernon and Mior [ 28 ], the sample may be classified as follows: mild 43; A lower level of disability is typical forthis subgroup of patients suffering from non-traumatic neck pain and it is similar to that observed by Vos et al. First, correlations were performed between the NDI and VAS and variables related to family functioning and coping with stress.
The correlations of all the variables with the age of the participants are included in Table 1. Age had a significant positivecorrelationwith Emotion Oriented style of coping, and a negative correlation with Task Oriented and Social Contacts. The correlations were, at most, moderate, according to the standards proposed by Taylor [ 37 ].
Controlling for age did not have any effect on the correlations with regard to the CISS. Most of the correlations with the FQ remained significant after controlling for age. Next, hierarchical stepwise regressions were performed. To reduce the number of predictors, which would be relatively large in relation to the sample size, the coping styles were dropped from these analyses, as they were not correlated with the VAS or the NDI in bivariate correlations or the partial correlations, which controlled for age.
Age was included in the first block, and the remaining predictors were entered in the second block of variables by means of stepwise elimination. Age was not retained in the final equation of any of the three analyses of the VAS Table 2.
Pomeranian Journal of Life Sciences
This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients.
Certainly, all of these factors in combination give future paramedics an understanding of their profession. The mean age of respondents was Steciwko A, Mastalerz-Migas A. Heszen-Niejodek I. Konteksty stresu psychologicznego. In: Stres oraz wypalenie zawodowe.