At all periods animals have been used by man in art and literature to symbolize his religious, social and political beliefs, and artists have found constant inspiration in the grace and beauty of animal forms. Yet animals have also always been viewed realistically by hunters, sportsmen, farmers, and all who come into daily contact with them or exploit them for food supplies or as beasts of burden. In Animals in Art and Thought Francis Klingender discusses these various attitudes in a survey which ranges from prehistoric cave art to the later Middle Ages. He is especially concerned with uncovering the latent as well as the manifest meanings of animal art, and he presents a detailed examination of the literary and archaeological monuments of the periods under review. The themes discussed include the Creation myths of pagan and Christian religion, the contribution of the animal art of the ancient Orient to the development of the Romanesque and Gothic styles in Europe, the use of beast fables in social or political satire, and the heroic associations of animals in medieval chivalry.
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An archive comprising the papers surviving at his widow's death: manuscripts and photographs relating to the Klingenders in Germany; photographs and other illustrations mostly connected with his art historical publications , copies of published works by Klingender in books, journals and newspapers including galley proofs ; manuscripts and notes for the same, together with books on art history and other works by left-wing or Marxist contemporaries collection.
Printed Books and Maps. An archive comprising the papers surviving at his widow's death: manuscripts and photographs relating to the Klingenders in Germany; photographs and other illustrations connected with his art historical publications and parallel research, copies of published works by Klingender in books, journals and newspapers including galley proofs ; unpublished manuscripts and notes for the same, together with books on art history and other works by left-wing or Marxist contemporaries collection.
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Francis Klingender 1907-1955: A Marxist Art Historian Out of Time
A principle or system which tends to deflect the artist or thinker from reality is unconditionally inferior to one which directs his energies towards objective truth. But one need only think of Hegel to realize that some of the greatest advances in human understanding have been made within the framework of a reactionary system of thought — or rather in spite of it. Greek, Gothic, etc. It is the task of scientific criticism to discover these concrete achievements of permanent significance within their relative and transitory shell.
from Marxism and Modern Art – Francis Klingender
Francis Donald Klingender  — 9 July  was a Marxist art historian and exponent of Kunstsoziologie whose uncompromising views meant that he never quite fitted into the British art history establishment. Klingender was born in Goslar , Germany, to British parents. At the start of the first World War, his father, Louis Henry Weston Klingender , was interned near Berlin on suspicion of spying for the British. The family moved back to England in the s and Klingender supported them while attending night classes at the London School of Economics.