Beginning with tribal wars among Native Americans before Europeans settled Texas and continuing through the Civil War, the soil of what would become the Lone Star State has frequently been stained by the blood of those contesting for control of its resources. In subsequent years and continuing to the present, its citizens have often taken up arms beyond its borders in pursuit of political values and national defense. Although historians have studied the role of the state and its people in war Read more.
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Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Genetic identification of Theobroma cacao L. Criollo -type cacao trees are an important pool of genes with potential to be used in cacao breeding and selection programs. For that reason, we assessed the diversity and population structure of Criollo -type trees cultivars with Criollo phenotypic characteristics and 10 Criollo references using 12 simple sequence repeat SSR markers.
Cultivars were selected from 7 demes in the Soconusco region of southern Mexico. SSRs amplified 74 alleles with an average of 3. The overall populations showed an average observed heterozygosity of 0. The relic Criollo cacao in Belize- genetic diversity and relationship with Trinitario and other cacao clones held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. Cacao Theobroma cacao L. The relic Criollo cocoa in Belize has been well known in the premium chocolate market for its high-quality.
Knowledge of genetic diversity in this variety is essential for efficient conserva The cacao Criollo genome v2.
Theobroma cacao L. The first draft genome of the species, from a Criollo cultivar, was published in Although a useful resource, some improvements are possible, including identifying misassemblies, reducing the number of scaffolds and gaps, and anchoring un-anchored sequences to the 10 chromosomes.
We combined four Illumina large insert size mate paired libraries with 52x of Pacific Biosciences long reads to correct misassembled regions and reduced the number of scaffolds. We then used genotyping by sequencing GBS methods to increase the proportion of the assembly anchored to chromosomes. The scaffold number decreased from 4, in assembly V1 to in V2 while the scaffold N50 size has increased from 0.
A total of Unknown sites Ns were reduced from In addition, we updated the functional annotations and performed a new RefSeq structural annotation based on RNAseq evidence. Theobroma cacao Criollo genome version 2 will be a valuable resource for the investigation of complex traits at the genomic level and for future comparative genomics and genetics studies in cacao tree.
Agroforestry systems are environment-friendly production systems which help to preserve biodiversity while providing people with a way of earning a living. Cacao is a historically important crop in Venezuela that traditionally has been produced in agroforestry systems. However, few studies have evaluated how different trees used in those systems affect the dynamics and abundance of insects.
The present study evaluated the entomofauna assemblages associated with different combinations of four timber-yielding trees and four Criollo cacao cultivars established in a lowland tropical ecosystem in Venezuela. Insects were collected with yellow pan traps and sorted to order. Coleoptera and parasitoid Hymenoptera were determined to the family level. In total, 49, individuals of seven orders were collected, with Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera being the most abundant, although only Lepidoptera and Coleoptera abundances were significantly influenced by the timber tree species.
Twenty-three families of parasitoid Hymenoptera and 26 of Coleoptera were found. No significant effects were found for interaction with cacao cultivars and native trees. We concluded that the particular insect assemblages found in Cedrela odorata and Cordia. Full Text Available Agroforestry systems are environment-friendly production systems which help to preserve biodiversity while providing people with a way of earning a living. We concluded that the particular insect assemblages found in Cedrela odorata.
The term Forastero originated in Latin America to differentiate the intro Secado de piezas de porcelana mediante microondas. Full Text Available During conventional drying, parts are heated from the outside creating large humidity and temperature gradients which, in turn, generate stresses due to differential shrinking of the part promoting their fracture. Besides, this process is very lenghty creating two important bottlenecks in the production of porcelain parts: drying and storage before refining and biscuit firing.
Microwave technology can solve these problems since parts are heated more homogenously and very quickly with smaller humidity and thermal gradients and, thus, shorter drying times and fewer rejects.
Probably the main problem in microwave drying of these products is the need to dry simultaneously parts with very different sizes, weights, thicknesses and geometries. This paper describes microwave drying of porcelain parts both individually and mixing diferent parts simultaneously. The results obtained indicate that drying times can be reduced drastically and that parts with diferent geometries and sizes do not pose a problem.
Besides, the economic benefits that can be derived by introducing microwave technology in the drying process of porcelain parts are estimated. Durante el secado convencional, las piezas se calientan desde el exterior dando lugar a elevados gradientes de humedad y temperatura que, a su vez, generan tensiones como consecuencia de contracciones diferenciales de la pieza facilitando su fractura. Probablemente el mayor problema del secado por microondas de este tipo de productos consiste en la necesidad de secar simult.
La porcelana del Buen Retiro. Investigaciones recientes. As some documents not known hitherto have revealed, the Factory was integrated by two different buildings. It was known that the building for the workrooms was raised up in —from January to May-. The economic cost traditionally atributted to this construction has resulted to be the total cost of a second building, raised in a period of five years —until August of to be occupied by the workers and their families.
A second aspect studied in these pages is about the iconographic sources on which may be based some porcelain works made at the Factory. Theobroma cacao. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the Full Text Available Chocolate is one of the most consumed foods worldwide and cacao fermentation contributes to the unique sensory characteristics of chocolate products.
However, comparative changes in volatiles occurring during fermentation of Criollo , Forastero, and Nacional cacao—three of the most representative cultivars worldwide—have not been reported. Beans of each cultivar were fermented for five days and samples were taken every 24 hours. Volatiles from each sample were adsorbed into a solid phase microextraction fiber and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Aroma potential of each compound was determined using available databases. Multivariate data analyses showed partial clustering of samples according to cultivars at the start of the fermentation but complete clustering was observed at the end of the fermentation. Nacional cacao produced fruity, green, and woody aroma volatiles including 2-nonanone, 3-octenol, 2-octanol acetate, 2-undecanone, valencene, and aromadendrene.
The Forastero cacao yielded floral and sweet aroma volatiles such as epoxylinalool, pentanoic acid, benzeneacetaldehyde, and benzaldehyde. This is the first report of volatiles produced during fermentation of Criollo , Forastero, and Nacional cacao from the same origin. Genetic analysis of the Venezuelan Criollo horse.
Various horse populations in the Americas have an origin in Spain; they are remnants of the first livestock introduced to the continent early in the colonial period 16th and 17th centuries. We evaluated genetic variability within the Venezuelan Criollo horse and its relationship with other horse breeds.
We observed high levels of genetic diversity within the Criollo breed. Significant population differentiation was observed between all South American breeds. The Venezuelan Criollo horse showed high levels of genetic diversity, and from a conservation standpoint, there is no immediate danger of losing variation unless there is a large drop in population size.
The genome sequence of the most widely cultivated cacao type and its use to identify candidate genes regulating pod color. The availability of its genome sequence and methods for identifying genes responsible for important cacao traits will aid cacao researchers and breeders. We describe the sequencing and assembly of the genome of Theobroma cacao L. The genome of the Matina cultivar is Mbp, which is significantly larger than a sequenced Criollo cultivar, and more typical of other cultivars.
The chromosome-scale assembly, version 1. Version 1. The version 1. Through a combination of haplotype, association mapping and gene expression analyses, we leverage this robust reference genome to identify a promising candidate gene responsible for pod color variation.
One SNP within the target site for a highly conserved trans-acting siRNA in dicots, found within TcMYB, seems to affect transcript levels of this gene and therefore pod color variation. We report a high-quality sequence and annotation of Theobroma cacao L. Background Theobroma cacao L. Results We describe the sequencing and assembly of the genome of Theobroma cacao L. Conclusions We report a high-quality sequence and annotation of Theobroma cacao L.
La autoimagen de los hablantes del criollo limonense. Genetic analysis of Mexican Criollo cattle populations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic structure of Mexican Criollo cattle populations using microsatellite genetic markers.
DNA samples were collected from animals from four Mexican Criollo cattle populations, geographically isolated in remote areas of Sierra Madre Occidental West Highlands.
Genetic analysis consisted of the estimation of the genetic diversity in each population by the allele number and the average expected heterozygosity found in nine microsatellite loci. Furthermore, genetic relationships among the populations were defined by their genetic distances. Our data shows that Mexican cattle populations have a relatively high level of genetic diversity based either on the mean number of alleles The degree of observed homozygosity within the Criollo populations was remarkable and probably caused by inbreeding reduced effective population size possibly due to reproductive structure within populations.
Our data shows that considerable genetic differentiation has been occurred among the Criollo cattle populations in different regions of Mexico. Agroforestry systems of timber species and cacao : survival and growth during the early stages. Full Text Available In recent times, increased emphasis has been placed on diversifying the types of trees to shade cacao Theobromacacao L.
Agroforestry systems that include profitable and native timber trees are a viable alternative but it is necessary to understand the growth characteristics of these species under different environmental conditions.
Thus, timber tree species selection should be based on plant responses to biotic and abiotic factors. The aims of this study were 1 to evaluate growth rates and leaf area indices of the four commercial timber species: Cordia thaisiana, Cedrela odorata, Swietenia macrophylla and Tabebuia rosea in conjunction with incidence of insect attacks and 2 to compare growth rates of four Venezuelan Criollo cacao cultivars planted under the shade of these four timber species during the first 36 months after establishment.
Parameters monitored in timber trees were: survival rates, growth rates expressed as height and diameter at breast height and leaf area index. In the four Cacao cultivars: height and basal diameter.
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Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Genetic identification of Theobroma cacao L. Criollo -type cacao trees are an important pool of genes with potential to be used in cacao breeding and selection programs. For that reason, we assessed the diversity and population structure of Criollo -type trees cultivars with Criollo phenotypic characteristics and 10 Criollo references using 12 simple sequence repeat SSR markers. Cultivars were selected from 7 demes in the Soconusco region of southern Mexico.
Get this from a library! Shop with confidence on eBay!. In Praise of the Common. Biopotere e lotte in America Latina Giuseppe Cocco. Available online at Semiotext e. Voice evidence suggested Negri made a threatening phone call on behalf of the BR, but the court was unable to prove his ties.