Embed Size px x x x x I, the undersigned, Oleg Miroslava Soldat, candidate for the MA degree in Medieval Studies declare herewith that the present thesis is exclusively my own work, based on my research and only such external information as properly credited in notes and bibliography. I declare that no unidentified and illegitimate use was made of the work of others, and no part of the thesis infringes on any persons or institutions copyright. I also declare that no part of the thesis has been submitted in this form to any other institution of higher education for an academic degree.
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One may, without any further elaboration, say that Bosnia formed the periphery of both the Byzantine Empire, and Western Europe first the Frankish and then the Hungarian state. Bosnia was far away from the most important communication line of the Balkans: the valleys of the rivers Morava and Vardar, Via militaris and also those of the rivers Ibar and Sitnica.
The axis of the Bosnian state was the valley of the river Bosna, but not of the Drina ill suited for communication with it steep banks and many canyons. Koder, University of Vienna, Prof. Blagojevi, and Prof. Mii of Belgrade University for their usuful comments and corrections of the following text.
Koder, Der Lebensraum der Byzantiner. Even though Bosnia was situated on the cross-roads, it is unacceptable to depict it as being more of a no-man's-land than a meeting ground between the two worlds, as J. However, this impression was founded on the Yugoslav historiographic texts of that time and reveals just to what extent Bosnia's history was unkown. On the other hand, there was yet another obstacle between the Mediterranean, i.
The breakthrough of influences from the south was blocked by the high mountain range of Dinara, the most dominant characteristic of the Western and Central Balkan Peninsula relief. The main lines of communications that follow the beds of the main rivers: Neretva Bosna, Neretva Vrbas and Drina, are heavily obstructed by Dinaric mountains, i. Dense and vast forest covered the mountains, making a considerable impediment for all means of transportation.
On the opposite side, towards the north of the Peninsula, the relief becomes significantly lower, milder and the whole land opens up to the great Pannonian plain. This geostrategic position on the Balkan Peninsula has largely influenced its political, social, economic, and cultural history. The first historiographic work dedicated solely to the historical geography of the medieval Bosnian state was written by Vladimir orovi , one of the most eminent Serbian historians.
Novakovi Serbian Lands in 10th and 12th century, The author began his essay by marking the borderlines of the Roman province of Dalmatia, in the heart of which the future Bosnian state would emerge. This 2. He devoted greater attention to this matter in his capital work The History of Bosnia He found traces of the Roman tradition in what was in his opinion was the northern frontier of the old Bosnia. Old Bosnia for him was the historical province i. He was the first author to distinguish Bosnia proper within the whole territory of the Bosnian state.
The term land Serb. In , Esad Paali wrote a capital work Antique Settlements and Communications in Bosnia and Hercegovina, firmly based on his own pedological research. He also established a connection between the Illyric tribes, their settlements and economy with those of the Roman era. His results have been widely accepted by other scientists, such as J. Wilkes and G. However, what is still needed is a more systematic scientific analysis, which should in greater depth investigate all the links between 5.
See also: E. Wilkes, Dalmatia, London , There we found a strong continuing link between the sites of settlements and those of the mining sites for example, Splonum Stari Majdan and Ljubija , and the route of the Roman roads were the same as the ones today Salona Servitium, Split Bosanska Gradika.
However, as Paali correctly noted, the valley of the Vrbas, between the towns of Jajce and Banjaluka, and also that of the river Ugar, were of no significance to the Roman authorities, and were not settled in the Roman times, but afterwards. That also speaks of a greater number of inhabitants in medieval times, who settled there despite despite the fact that those areas were not too suitable for living.
To sum up, further studies should give us a deeper insight into this field of research. In chapter 31 Bosnia is depicted as one geographical area within baptized Serbia and surrounded by what was the oldest state of the Serbian people. For a general overview: S. Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans.
Paali, Antika naselja, ; Z. Yet I. Bojanovski was the only scientist who thought that the Roman authorities had built the road which ran along the river bed of Vrbas, between the town of Jajce and Banja Luka Dolabelin sistem cesta u rimskoj provinciji Dalmaciji Dolabella's Road System in the Roman Province Dalmatia , Sarajevo , map I; Cf.
Mrgi-Radoji, Donji Kraji. Krajina srednjovekovne Bosne Donji Kraji. Mark of the Medieval Bosnia , Beograd , settlements, with tables and a map , mining locations , communications, with a map. There were two inhabited cities Kotor and Desnik , presumably located in the two fields respectively. He also thought that upa Vrhbosna was central - the region where the process of state building began, and pointed out its geographical and communication advantages, undisputable to this day.
Dini, G. Tomovi, M. Blagojevi and S. The earliest upas were also geographical units, i. In terms of administration, a upa consisted of a number of villages governed from one local center initially a refugium location, a fortified place surrounded by trenches and wooden fences. Later it became a fortress, made predominantly of stone, where a upan resided, who acted as both a civic and military commander.
Porfirogenitos, Spis o narodima, 58, n. Ferjani, with references ; C. Porphirogenitus, DAI, Greek text ed. Moravcsik, English transl. Jenkins, Washington , Ch.
Porphirogenitus, DAI Commantary, ed. Jenkins, London , For general overview A. Toynbee, Constantine Porphyrogenitus and his world, London , , However, those two inhabited cities are still not precisely ubified some new approaches and identifications see in: S.
For the history of the whole period: M. Blagojevi D. Tomovi , with references; M. In time, upa had also changed its character: the early feudal upas between the 9th and 12th centuries were more spacious, with smaller population density. However, as the number of inhabitants grew in parallel with economic development, new upas were formed in parts of former units, i.
There are several examples of this process concerning upas in river valleys, usually named after the river concerned: till the end of the 12th century there were upas called Cetina, Lab and Bosna, and afterwards Vrhrika and Cetina, Vrhlab and Lab, Vrhbosna and Bosna. The prefix vrh was added to distinguish the area around the source and the upper part of the river, where a new upa was founded, with a new center. Simeona i Sv. Save Historical Geography of Serbia in the bioographies of St.
Simeon and St. Sava , Sveti Sava u srpskoj istoriji i tradiciji, Beograd , ; ib. See also A. Loma, o. Miklosich, Monumenta Serbica, Viennae , 4; T. Skok, Prilozi k ispitivanju srpko-. Even the two inhabited cities in DAI indicate the process of detachment of a new territorial unit, but this division happened sometime before , when the newly formed upa Vrhbosna is for the first time mentioned in a historical source. There is no doubt that upa Bosna covered the field of Visoko, and the one of the later date the field of Sarajevo.
Near Visoko, as well as in it, were the courts of the Bosnian rulers Mili, Motre, Sutjeska, Bobovac , centers of the heretic Bosnian church Janjii , as well as the necropolis of the ruling family of Kotromani Mili-Arnautovii.
Therefore, orovi was right to presume that the earliest center of the medieval Bosnian state was precisely in those two fields in the valley of the river Bosna. In order to obtain and sustain the loyalty of the nobility, the ruler was obliged to grant land and immunity rights to his vassals. He was able to donate a village, town, market etc. However, it should be underlined that upas continued to exist as geographical units, and some of them may still be found today.
For example, the people of the region of ipovo still use the name upa for the area round the upper course of the Pliva Pljeva and the lower part of its tributary Janj, behrvatskih imena mjesta, Rad JAZU , ; ib. Loma, Sprachgut, A text of G. Skok, since it only gives a number of well known examples.
For further readinig on material remains see: P. Aneli, Bobovac i Kraljevska Sutjeska, Sarajevo ; ib. Popovi, Vladarski i vlasteoski dvor u srednjovekovnoj Bosni. Other examples can be found in the valleys of Ukrina and Usora in Northern Bosnia, which have similar geoclimatic features, and were once upas in the administrative sense. Those spacious units were called land Serb. Long before his time, orovi rightly noted this kind of development, relying on anthropologic records of the time, testifying to the fact that people living in different parts of Bosnia and Hercegovina clearly expressed their local territorial belonging.
These new results have recently been presented on the maps of the Historical Atlas On medieval towns see: D. Kovaevi-Koji, Gradska naselja srednjovjekovne bosanske drave Town Settlements of the Medieval Bosnian State , Sarajevo ; on the abovementioned examples:.
The first historiographer who pointed to the existence of the land as a higher administrative unit of the Serbian states was M. Blagojevi, who investigated this subject in many of his works.
Rethinking the Territorial Development of Medieval Bosnia