From the beginning of the s, a considerable interest in business ethics has been observed in Poland. It seems that the legacy of Polish researchers concerned with this academic discipline is already rich enough, and at the same time so diverse, that it is worth making an attempt to systematise it, exploring and appropriately naming the basic approaches to deal with business ethics in Poland. The carried-out analyses allowed to determine the following leading methods in the formal aspect: firstly, metaethics of business ethics; secondly, business ethics practised in the framework of various modifications of normative ethics mostly deontology, utilitarianism, virtue ethics and ethics of responsibility; on the other hand, it has been observed that there is a complete lack of clear references to personalistic ethics ; thirdly, business ethics practised as descriptive ethics in economic life. Bittner, I. Brzozowski, A. Ethics in Economic Life, 9 2 , —
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Ewa stwie. Chmielewski, Warszawa , s. Einfeld i S. Wolff, Z. Sadowski, t. Petach, Warszawa Smith, Badania …, op. Smith, Teoria …, op. Dlate- ta. Piotrowicz, t. Beck U. Hare R. Jarco J. MacIntyre A. Filozo ia mo- niejszej pracy. Przewodnik po etyce, pod red. Bober i inni, Warszawa Rau Z. Na- wieku, Warszawa Smith A. Weber M. Tocqueville A. Bakalarz, Warszawa , s. Janicka i M. W poszukiwa- Warszawa , s.
Rau, Liberalizm. Bakalarz, Warszawa Weber, Asceza i duch kapitalizmu, [w:] Idem, Szkice z socjologii religii, Warszawa , s. Charles Fourier Abstract: Business ethics is based on limitations. This implies that pro it has to be the means, not the end. This attitude towards business is deeply rooted in Christianity, especially in Prote- stantism, which aims at the limitation of consumption, while work is intended to become ascesis Weber.
The requirement that there should be a shift in the point of reference of business ethics should also be taken into considera- tion. Both to the present day and in the past, it has been focused on the greed of businessmen. Keywords: business ethics, greed, pro it, risk, market, economy, morality, philosophy Business ethics is practical ethics, which means fore assign a degree of certainty or truth to them, that not only does it explain some aspects of econo- at least at the level of a pragmatic concept.
Howe- mic life as a human interactive activity descriptive ver, we must remember, as stated by M. Hare, that ethics , but also formulates speci ic standards of be- ethical evaluations are prescriptions, which means haviour in broadly understood business normative that they are more orders than statements of facts1.
However, the degree of making it more prac- Business ethics, as well as applied ethics me- tical is so big that it leads to a kind of banality or tri- dical and legal ethics , involves the realisation of viality, which is the result of having to refer to speci- some general principles or moral norms e.
Therefore, we are faced with a di- teacher, doctor, or judge who are ranked high on the lemma: economic life is a speci ic activity; ethics is prestige scale in the study of occupational prestige general norms even practical ethics.
Therefore, from a description of a situation. Bearing in mind even in business ethics, it is dif icult to ind favoura- this limitation, the principle can be accepted that ble opinions about entrepreneurship and business an example only helps us to understand, but does people. It is often limited to the criticism of these not explain anything, so owing to it, we can better sel ish tendencies2.
On the other hand, there is a belief in business king: Its levels, Methods, and Point , translation J. Most moralists, when their attention was drawn the functioning of any complex social organism. He to the ethical problems of economic life, both in directly formulated it even as an art by which the the Middle Ages and in ancient times, particularly functioning of the state is made possible. Business ethics actual- gin.
In our country, engaged in such a purely sel ish practice8. This criti- we also primarily focus on business pathologies re- cism of action because of the instinct to reap pro it, sulting in the trivialisation of the issue of business and we always condemn actions due to inclinations, ethics and temporality of examples , especially whe- opposing the duty-based action to it at least at the re economic life and politics meet the so-called Ry- level of Kantian formalism , has reached our times.
It is the goal that nation of unemployment, etc. It also entails the fact that ceived dishonesty and the lack of moral principles gaining increasing money does not have any re- in achieving pro it, indicating that this mainly oc- strictions, making it a goal in itself and according curs at the expense of the poorest.
Economics oikonomika introduces limita- preneur, even one having a small business, risks the tions. A household is to maintain its members, and whole family property often this property is not therefore, Aristotle devotes a lot of space to consi- big, because it is being built , which can end up in derations on family relationships, illustrating this bankruptcy and paying off debts for many years to by the duties of wife and husband.
So, he introduces follow. In this respect, R. We are all te. Pro it cash is rather a necessary means business ethics tries to be, to some extent, an ele- in order to further develop business.
Pro it enables ment of risk management. So, we easily condemn further investment, or enables further larger pro it. Fur- and we do not notice that without it, we would not thermore, it contains, or even enables distributive be able to function at the level we live now at all - for justice.
It allows us to divide cash pro it between which we are also jointly responsible participation employees, shareholders, consumers and ultimately in risk. So, we have a growing understanding of the the whole society through the tax system.
In the irst case, pro it trepreneurial people, unfortunately, were assessed is something negative, if it was a goal in itself. But negatively. Aristotle distinguished two types of it cannot be such a goal due to its nature, i. This is the result of the distributive justice that Latin oeconomca , which is the principle of mainta- remains after the payment of the costs of achieving ining and meeting the needs of the family.
Aristotle pro it. Secondly, the motive for action has no effect approved this art and thought it to be essential for on a moral assessment, at least in the utilitarian theory, which seems to be most appropriate ap- 3 R. Solomon, Business Ethics, transalation R. Pucek, [in:] A Guide to Ethics, proach to business activities. Therefore, even in the edited by P. Singer, translation W.
Bober and others, Warsaw , p. Beck, Risk Society. Towards a New Modernity, translation S. Pi- Piotrowicz, vol. The founder of modern econom- does not stand up to a modern test. However, com- ics is thus primarily, a philosopher, seeing the basics ments on the social nature of economic activity are of economics in the analysis of the social and moral still equally valid. However, swer to this question was moderation and harmony. Thus, if there It is also worth referring to a description from the is no total condemnation of wealth, its limitations Gospel, according to which Jesus drove merchants are indicated.
It aims at meeting the necessities of and moneylenders out of the temple. Christian mor- life. But is this interpretation, although has become the target Hence, ethics has criticised authoritative, right?
Did Christ really condemn in business activities so easily, as it is, after all, associ- this symbolic way all those who act guided by the ated with the category of success so valued by the desire to achieve the greatest pro it possible in eco- ancients. This can be interpreted in such a way that Only after ethical considerations of the Middle he did not condemn business people as such, or did Ages and early modern times, Adam Smith in his not condemn them for who they are.
And we know book under the telling title An Inquiry into the Nature that Christ never condemned people, even those who and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, raised the value were not widely respected and those regarded as of the instinct to make money, or achieve inancial bad, such as customs of icers.
However, Jesus always success This did this case it was the similar — he denounced a particu- not serve well the development of sound business lar evil deed, which was the profanation of the tem- ethics, which is looking for both the good aspects ple by changing its sacred function into dealings with of pro it-oriented business activities and their pro- worldly affairs. Christ, therefore, restored the proper motion, as well as for the bad aspects that should task to the temple, making it again the House of God.
And he removed the merchants by revealing to them Smith himself preceded his considerations by a thor- that their proper place is in the market and not in the ough research on morality12 , showing that ethics temple. He showed us in this way that everything has precedes economics.
Business Ethics in Poland: A metatheoretical analysis
PL EN. Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt. Adres strony. Agata Stachowicz-Stanusch. Business Ethics - Concepts' Review.