Sanskrit is a language that flows from time immemorial; it originates in natural sounds and finds its way in many spoken languages Today. This book presents the traditional Dhatupatha of Panini, the Roots of the Sanskrit Language, in Devanagari script, with a measure of Elucidation. It contains all the Sanskrit Dhatus in correct Panini order. It also contains versions of some Dhatus appearing in standard Dhatupathas, so that the total count of Dhatus listed is It also gives Ashtadhyayi Sutra Reference for Dhatus that are difficult to conjugate. A complete Alphabetical Index is supplied that is pleasingly formatted to locate any Dhatu easily.
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This article will be permanently flagged as inappropriate and made unaccessible to everyone. Are you certain this article is inappropriate? Email Address:. His theory of morphological analysis was more advanced than any equivalent Western theory before the mid 20th century, [ 3 ] and his analysis of noun compounds still forms the basis of modern linguistic theories of compounding, which have borrowed Sanskrit terms such as bahuvrihi and dvandva.
Most scholarship suggests a 4th-century BC floruit corresponding to the Pushkalavati site in Gandhara , contemporary to the Nanda Dynasty ruling the Gangetic plain, but a 5th or even late 6th century BC date cannot be ruled out with certainty. He notes a few special rules, marked chandasi "in the hymns" to account for forms in the Vedic scriptures that had fallen out of use in the spoken language of his time. These indicate that Vedic Sanskrit was already archaic, but still a comprehensible dialect.
It is believed by some that a work of such complexity would have been difficult to compile without written notes, though others have argued that he might have composed it with the help of a group of students whose memories served him as 'notepads' as is typical in Vedic learning. New deities referred to in his work include Vasudeva 4. The concept of dharma is attested in his example sentence 4.
Taittiriya Upanishad 1. Panini is believed to have been born in Gandhara. It is highly systematised and technical. Inherent in its approach are the concepts of the phoneme , the morpheme and the root. His rules have a reputation for perfection [ 15 ] — that is, they are claimed to describe Sanskrit morphology fully, without any redundancy.
A consequence of his grammar's focus on brevity is its highly unintuitive structure, reminiscent of modern notations such as the " Backus—Naur Form ".
His sophisticated logical rules and technique have been widely influential in ancient and modern linguistics. The Ashtadhyayi was not the first description of Sanskrit grammar, but it surpassed its predecessor on such a monumental scale that all earlier works are now lost except for the extent to which they are mentioned by Panini. In the Ashtadhyayi, language is observed in a manner that has no parallel among Greek or Latin grammarians.
This metalanguage is organised according to a series of meta-rules, some of which are explicitly stated while others can be deduced. The two fundamental principles on which the metalanguage is based are non-redundancy, or the principle of economy, and the necessity of all the rules in the Ashtadhyayi.
As these anubandha s are metalinguistic markers and not pronounced in the final derived form, pada word , they are elided by P. The Shiva Sutras describe a phonemic notational system in the fourteen initial lines preceding the Ashtadhyayi. The notational system introduces different clusters of phonemes that serve special roles in the morphology of Sanskrit, and are referred to throughout the text. Within the main text, these clusters, referred through the anubandhas, are related to various grammatical functions.
The Dhatupatha is a lexicon of Sanskrit verbal roots subservient to the Ashtadhyayi. It is organized by the ten present classes of Sanskrit, i. Most of these classes are directly inherited from Proto-Indo-European. The small number of class 8 verbs are a secondary group derived from class 5 roots, and class 10 is a special case, in that any verb can form class 10 presents, then assuming causative meaning. The roots specifically listed as belonging to class 10 are those for which any other form has fallen out of use causative deponents , so to speak.
The system thus established is extremely detailed as to shiksha phonology , including accent and vyakarana morphology. Syntax is scarcely touched, but nirukta etymology is discussed, and these etymologies naturally lead to semantic explanations. He also attacks Katyayana rather severely. The learning of Indian curriculum in late classical times had at its heart a system of grammatical study and linguistic analysis.
The intention of the author was to teach this advanced science through a relatively easy and pleasant medium. In his own words:. This composition is like a lamp to those who perceive the meaning of words and like a hand mirror for a blind man to those without grammar. This poem, which is to be understood by means of a commentary, is a joy to those sufficiently learned: through my fondness for the scholar I have here slighted the dullard. Subsequently, a wider body of work influenced Sanskrit scholars such as Ferdinand de Saussure , Leonard Bloomfield , and Roman Jakobson.
Frits Staal discussed the impact of Indian ideas on language in Europe. More importantly, the very idea that formal rules can be applied to areas outside of logic or mathematics may itself have been catalyzed by Europe's contact with the work of Sanskrit grammarians. Saussure himself cited Indian grammar as an influence on some of his ideas. Indeed, on occasion, Saussure follows a path that is contrary to Paninian procedure.
This technique, rediscovered by the logician Emil Post , became a standard method in the design of computer programming languages. Considerable evidence shows ancient mastery of context-sensitive grammars, and a general ability to solve many complex problems.
Frits Staal has written that "Panini is the Indian Euclid. India released a stamp in honor of Panini in My Dashboard Get Published. Sign in with your eLibrary Card close. Flag as Inappropriate. Email this Article. For other uses, see Panini disambiguation. Main article: Shiva Sutras.
Panini, the great Sanskrit grammarian.. Indian mathematics. Ramanujam Srinivasa Ramanujan C. Srinivasa Varadhan more. Sarasvati Amma A. Babylonian mathematics Chinese mathematics Greek mathematics Islamic mathematics European mathematics. Funding for USA. Congress, E-Government Act of Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
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This article will be permanently flagged as inappropriate and made unaccessible to everyone. Are you certain this article is inappropriate? Email Address:. His theory of morphological analysis was more advanced than any equivalent Western theory before the mid 20th century, [ 3 ] and his analysis of noun compounds still forms the basis of modern linguistic theories of compounding, which have borrowed Sanskrit terms such as bahuvrihi and dvandva. Most scholarship suggests a 4th-century BC floruit corresponding to the Pushkalavati site in Gandhara , contemporary to the Nanda Dynasty ruling the Gangetic plain, but a 5th or even late 6th century BC date cannot be ruled out with certainty. He notes a few special rules, marked chandasi "in the hymns" to account for forms in the Vedic scriptures that had fallen out of use in the spoken language of his time.
Dhatupatha, Dhātupāṭha, Dhatu-patha: 5 definitions
Dhatupatha means something in Hinduism , Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.