A link FM A: A quick procedure performed to attempt to clear a stoppage without determining the actual cause. Skip to content A link FM A: FM Downrange feedback range firing 3.
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In this capacity, the rate of fire for the M4 rifle is not based on how fast the Soldier can pull the trigger. Rather, it is based on how fast the Soldier can consistently acquire and engage the enemy with accuracy and precision. Consistently hitting a target with precision is a complex interaction of factors immediately before, during, and after the round fires. These interactions include maintaining postural steadiness, establishing and maintaining the proper aim on the target, stabilization of the weapon while pressing the trigger, and adjusting for environmental and battlefield conditions.
In , the Army released TC The previous edition, FM The circular is designed for all soldiers, regardless of skill level. It is a reference for anyone to use when reviewing marksmanship skills.
Someone figured out that efficiency and ease of reference are valuable qualities. The first few chapters are about the weapon system itself, the various accessories, and their usage. The remaining chapters are about the employment of the weapon, with each chapter focusing on the elements of good marksmanship.
What follows is a quick breakdown of each chapter. I highly recommend checking out and saving the complete document. Each chapter builds upon the information found in the previous one. Chapter 1 details several fundamental elements that will be built upon in the remainder of the manual. The chapter details safe weapons handling as well as common terminology for weapon condition and employment. The chapter also introduces concepts such as overmatch, engagement range, visibility conditions, and terminal ballistic performance.
Overmatch is the Soldier applying their learned skills, employing their equipment, leveraging technology, and applying the proper force to create an unfair fight in favor of the Soldier. The diagrams here are actually very useful, much more so than the edition. As you will see below, Chapter 2 of this publication stripped out all of the accessories discussion of the previous edition and turned them into their own chapters and appendices.
There is a very good description of both Minutes of Angle MOA and Mils, as well as useful diagrams of the various reticle types commonly found on combat rifles. There is a much better description of the electromagnetic spectrum than the previous manual.
Things to be aware of planning considerations with these optics are that they have difficulty imaging through the following:. Situations where IR can see better are the following:. Regarding optics and sighting devices, the chapter has detailed descriptions and tables for the various iron sights and optical devices. With red dot sights, there is a useful diagram for holdover reference.
The list is not comprehensive, though. It focuses on the M68, RCO, and thermal sight. Chapter 4 is a quick overview of other mountable equipment such as underbarrel grenade launchers, shotguns, bipods, vertical foregrips, and white lights.
The chapter describes the expectations of each individual rifleman in regards to making hits count. It talks about the shot process and the supporting elements of it. The shot process is broken into the three sections; pre-shot, shot, and post shot. There is also a section talking about target detection, identification, and prioritization. Included in this latter section is a paragraph concerning the identification of friendly forces.
The target location is the determination of where a target is in your operational environment in relation to the shooter, small unit, or element. Locating a target or series of targets occurs as a result of the search and acquisition actions of each Soldier in the small unit. Once a target is located, the threat location can be rapidly and efficiently communicated to the rest of the unit. The quoted excerpt illustrates a good example of why you should attend tactical training.
These paragraphs do not do justice to the actual difficulty of locating and communicating a target, especially when there is fire. Chapter 6 starts with a description of steady hold factors and all the components that make up a good shooting position.
This chapter does a fantastic job describing each of the main firing positions. Each has a diagram describing the various elements of the position. The previous edition only included standing, kneeling, and four variations of prone unsupported, supported, roll-over, reverse roll-over. This, in my view, is one of the most visible indicators that the new manual is more about successful marksmanship in the field and not just about passing the qualification course.
Chapter 7 begins with listing the elements and actions that the shooter must keep in mind to make a successful shot:. It also discusses the importance of aiming for the center of visible mass CoVM , which may appear as a head popping up over a wall or be an entire torso. Orienting and aiming a weapon correctly is a practiced skill. Through drills and repetitions, Soldiers build the ability to repeat proper weapons orientation, sight alignment, and sight picture as a function of muscle memory.
The remainder of the chapter covers each of the above elements in more detail, to include various sight pictures for each of the different aiming devices listed earlier. It also covers common aiming areas, errors, aiming under adverse conditions, and weapon orientation.
The emphasis of Chapter 8 is what the shooter can influence themselves in order to make a successful shot. These include trigger control, breath control, workspace management, the rate of fire, follow-through, malfunctions, and even transition to secondary weapons if present. This section is exactly what it sounds like. It details the various components of an ammunition cartridge, as well as different bullet designs.
There is lot s of detail about each of the issued 5. This section is a very good discussion of both internal, external, and terminal ballistics. The diagrams and discussions are much more detailed than the previous publication. The section on terminal ballistics and effects on various materials at range is very nice. It gives examples of situations that make good hits on target more difficult. Then works through solutions to those problems.
This section opens with a discussion of mindset, something completely left out of the previous edition. These drills target key areas of peformance :. This section is a very thorough explanation of the zeroing process. Additionally, this section talks about the coaching of shooters.
Appendix F of TC It describes the qualification process, conditions, and requirements. It would make a good baseline for yourself if you had access to appropriate facilities.
This is a short guide to boresighting before heading to the range. Thank you for coming by The Everyday Marksman. This site and its community are a labor of love. I hope you stick around for a while, and maybe even join us.
Resource Review: US Army TC 3-22.9 Rifle and Carbine Marksmanship
B oard Subjects. Questions and Answers Exactly as they will be asked at the board. The exact Questions as they will be asked by the Board members. A: provides Soldiers with the critical information for their rifle or carbine and how it functions. What does Chapters describe? A: the weapon, aiming devices, mountable weapons, and accessories associated with the rifle and carbine.
FM 3-22.9 Rifle Marksmanship M4/M16