Highlights Causes of Schizophrenia The causes of schizophrenia are not known. Multiple factors such as genetics and brain chemistry may play a role. Complications of Schizophrenia Schizophrenia can have a devastating impact on patients and their families. Patients with schizophrenia have increased risk for self-destructive behaviors and suicide. The antipsychotic drugs used to treat schizophrenia can have severe side effects, including increased risk of obesity and diabetes.

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Highlights Causes of Schizophrenia The causes of schizophrenia are not known. Multiple factors such as genetics and brain chemistry may play a role. Complications of Schizophrenia Schizophrenia can have a devastating impact on patients and their families. Patients with schizophrenia have increased risk for self-destructive behaviors and suicide. The antipsychotic drugs used to treat schizophrenia can have severe side effects, including increased risk of obesity and diabetes.

Medications Schizophrenia is a chronic condition, which is usually treated with antipsychotic medication. There are two main classes of these drugs:. Typical antipsychotics first-generation antipsychotics include haloperidol Haldol , chlorpromazine Thorazine , perphenazine Trilafon , thioridazine Mellaril , trifluoperazine Stelazine , and fluphenazine Prolixin.

All of these drugs are available as generics. Atypical antipsychotics second-generation antipsychotics include clozapine Clozaril, generic , risperidone Risperdal, generic , olanzapine Zyprexa, generic , quetiapine Seroquel , ziprasidone Geodon , aripiprazole Abilify , palperidone Invega , iloperidone Fanapt , asenapine Saphris , and lurasidone Latuda.

Introduction Schizophrenia is a group of psychotic disorders that interfere with thinking and mental or emotional responsiveness. It is a disease of the brain. The term schizophrenia, which means "split mind," was first used in by Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler to categorize patients whose thought processes and emotional responses seemed disconnected.

Despite its name, the condition does not cause a split personality. Schizophrenia is a group of psychotic disorders characterized by disturbances in perception, behavior, and communication that last longer than 6 months. This includes psychotic behavior. A person with schizophrenia has deteriorated occupational, interpersonal, and self-supportive abilities. Paranoid-type schizophrenia is marked by delusions of persecution or conspiracy and is often accompanied by auditory hallucinations.

Disorganized-type schizophrenia is marked by disordered thought processes, manifested in disorganized speech and behavior, and includes flat affect absence of appropriate emotional responsiveness. Catatonic-type schizophrenia is marked by extremes in movement and behavior ranging from hyperactive agitation to complete lethargy and immobility.

Undifferentiated-type schizophrenia is a category used when symptoms do not clearly fall into one of the above subtypes. Residual-type schizophrenia is used to describe patients who have had a history of schizophrenia but whose symptoms have diminished or become less severe. Symptoms Doctors often group symptoms of schizophrenia into three categories: Positive, negative, and cognitive. Positive Symptoms Positive symptoms include the psychotic symptoms that are most often associated with schizophrenia.

Psychotic symptoms usually occur every now and then, alternating with periods of remission. These symptoms include:. A hallucination is the experience of seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, or feeling something that doesn't really exist. Auditory hallucinations are false senses of sound such as hearing voices that can't be heard by others.

Auditory hallucinations are the most common psychotic symptoms experienced by people with schizophrenia. A delusion is a fixed, false belief. It can be bizarre such as invisible aliens have entered the room through an electrical socket or more conventional such as unwarranted jealousy or the paranoid belief in being persecuted or watched.

Thought Disorders. Thought disorders are manifestations of disorganized speech and thinking. People with schizophrenia may have incoherent or garbled speech patterns or have difficulty expressing themselves in a logical manner. Movement Disorders. Movement disorders span a spectrum from agitated or repetitive body movements to complete lack of motion or responsiveness catatonia. Negative Symptoms Negative symptoms indicate an absence of normal emotional responses.

They include:. Emotional flatness lack of affect often characterized by a dull empty facial expression Limited or monotone speech.

Difficulty focusing or paying attention Difficulty understanding information or following instructions. Causes The causes of schizophrenia are not yet understood. Scientists think that schizophrenia may develop from a combination of genetic, brain chemistry, and environmental factors.

Genetic Factors Schizophrenia undoubtedly has a genetic component. However, heredity does not explain all cases of schizophrenia. Researchers are seeking the specific genetic factors that may be responsible for schizophrenia. There is also evidence that schizophrenia may share genetic pathways with other psychotic and psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder and autism.

Brain Chemistry and Structure Brain Chemistry. Schizophrenia is associated with an unusual imbalance of neurotransmitters chemicals that act as messengers between nerve cells. In particular, brain chemicals such as dopamine and glutamine may be involved. Brain Structure. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI scans of the brains of patients with schizophrenia have revealed structural abnormalities. Such problems may cause nerve damage and disconnections in the pathways that carry brain chemicals.

Age Schizophrenia can occur at any age, but it tends to first develop or at least become evident between adolescence and young adulthood, typically between the ages of 16 - 30 years. It rarely occurs before adolescence or after age Gender Schizophrenia affects both men and women. Men are more likely than women to develop schizophrenia at an earlier age and to experience more severe symptoms.

Various environmental factors may play a role in the development of schizophrenia, especially for people who already have a genetic predisposition. Environmental factors possibly associated with schizophrenia include:. Viral infections. Factors that increase exposure to viruses living in urban environments, large families, winter and spring births have been associated with higher risk for schizophrenia.

Prenatal and Perinatal Problems. Maternal exposure to viruses, maternal malnutrition, and birth complications such as a baby experiencing lack of oxygen during delivery may be linked to schizophrenia. Fathers age. According to some studies, the older a father is when a child is born, the greater the risk is for schizophrenia in his offspring, perhaps because of a greater chance of genetic mutations in the sperm that can be passed on.

Childhood trauma. Although parental influence is no longer believed to directly lead to the development of schizophrenia, certain types of childhood trauma including sexual and physical abuse may play a role. Complications Schizophrenia can have a devastating effect on both patients and their families. Self-Destructive Behaviors Substance Abuse. Many people with schizophrenia abuse alcohol and drugs. Substance abuse, in addition to its other adverse effects, increases the likelihood that a patient will not take medication and will have more severe symptoms.

Although people with schizophrenia are not usually violent except possibly those who have severe paranoia , substance abuse in the schizophrenic patient increases the risk for violence. Nicotine dependence is the most common form of substance abuse among people with schizophrenia.

Most patients with schizophrenia smoke. Biologic and genetic factors associated with schizophrenia may play a role. For some patients, smoking can be a form of self-medication that may help control symptoms.

Patients with schizophrenia have an increased risk for suicide and suicidal behavior. Clinical depression is common among people with schizophrenia. The stresses of dealing with social isolation, discrimination, and stigma can also be factors.

Medical Illnesses Patients with untreated schizophrenia are more likely to suffer from poverty, homelessness, and incarceration. If patients do not take their medication and symptoms recur, they can have difficulty caring for themselves and be at risk for developing other medical illnesses.

Diabetes is a particular concern for people with schizophrenia. In addition to a possible link to schizophrenia itself, many antipsychotic medications can raise blood sugar levels.

Patients taking atypical antipsychotics drugs -- such as clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, quetiapine fumarate, and ziprasidone -- should receive a baseline blood sugar level reading and be monitored for any increases in blood sugar levels. Effect on Family Members A strong social support system is very important for patients with schizophrenia.

In addition to medical professionals and community resources, family members play a vital role in monitoring a patients mental status and helping the patient receive and maintain treatment. Schizophrenia produces enormous family stress.

In addition to dealing with bewildering and frightening symptoms and personality changes, families often need to confront difficult bureaucratic obstacles in finding appropriate care for their loved ones. Support groups can help families realize they are not alone, and provide recommendations for resources and advocacy. Diagnosis A doctor will make a diagnosis of schizophrenia based on a patients symptoms and how long they have lasted. If a patient has at least one active flare-up lasting a month or more.

The flare-up consists of at least two characteristic symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, evidence of disorganized thinking and speaking, and emotional unresponsiveness with a flat speaking tone.

If the patient has particularly bizarre delusions or hallucinations, these alone will qualify as a diagnostic sign of schizophrenia. If major areas of functioning work, school, interpersonal relations, self-care have been significantly affected since the disturbance began If certain symptoms are present for at least 6 months, even in the absence of active flareups. Such symptoms include marked social withdrawal, peculiar behavior talking to oneself, severe superstitiousness , vague and incoherent speech, or other indications of disturbed thinking, as well as continued deterioration of the patient's social and personal relationships.

The common hallmarks of schizophrenia are also symptoms that can occur in dozens of other psychologic and medical conditions, as well as with certain medications.

Shared symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized and incoherent speech, a flat tone of voice, and bizarrely disorganized or catatonic behavior such as lack of speech, muscular rigidity, and unresponsiveness. Conditions that may resemble schizophrenia include:. Other Psychiatric Disorders. Bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and depression can all have psychotic elements that resemble schizophrenia.



Skripsi thesis, Universitas Setia Budi Surakarta. Schizophrenia was a chronic disease that requires a high cost. Antipsychotics are the main treatment of schizophrenia. This study aimed to know cost effectiveness among combination of typical antipsychotic therapy versus combination of typical and atypical antipsychotic therapy of patien with schizophrenia.







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